A perennial task is to prevent the occurrence and/or recurrence of most frequent or life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation (AF) and ventricular fibrillation (VF). VF may be lethal in cases without an implantable cardioverter defibrillator or with failure of this device. Incidences of AF, even the asymptomatic ones, jeopardize the patient’s life due to its complication, notably the high risk of embolic stroke. Therefore, there has been a growing interest in subclinical AF screening and searching for novel electrophysiological and molecular markers. Considering the worldwide increase in cases of thyroid dysfunction and diseases, including thyroid carcinoma, we aimed to explore the implication of thyroid hormones in pro-arrhythmic signaling in the pathophysiological setting. The present review provides updated information about the impact of altered thyroid status on both the occurrence and recurrence of cardiac arrhythmias, predominantly AF. Moreover, it emphasizes the importance of both thyroid status monitoring and AF screening in the general population, as well as in patients with thyroid dysfunction and malignancies. Real-world data on early AF identification in relation to thyroid function are scarce. Even though symptomatic AF is rare in patients with thyroid malignancies, who are under thyroid suppressive therapy, clinicians should be aware of potential interaction with asymptomatic AF. It may prevent adverse consequences and improve the quality of life. This issue may be challenging for an updated registry of AF in clinical practice. Thyroid hormones should be considered a biomarker for cardiac arrhythmias screening and their tailored management because of their multifaceted cellular actions.
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