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Review

Conventional and Molecular Techniques from Simple Breeding to Speed Breeding in Crop Plants: Recent Advances and Future Outlook

1
National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, Hubei, China
2
Oil Crops Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agriculture Sciences, Wuhan 430070, China
3
Graduate School of Biotechnology & Crop Biotech Institute, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104, Korea
4
State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology and State Key Laboratory of Microbial Biosensor, College of Life Sciences Huazhong Agriculture University, Wuhan 430070, China
5
State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology and Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Pathology of Hubei Province, College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
6
Institute of Crop Science and Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Crop Germplasm, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(7), 2590; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21072590
Received: 8 February 2020 / Revised: 3 April 2020 / Accepted: 5 April 2020 / Published: 8 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Collection Genetics and Molecular Breeding in Plants)
In most crop breeding programs, the rate of yield increment is insufficient to cope with the increased food demand caused by a rapidly expanding global population. In plant breeding, the development of improved crop varieties is limited by the very long crop duration. Given the many phases of crossing, selection, and testing involved in the production of new plant varieties, it can take one or two decades to create a new cultivar. One possible way of alleviating food scarcity problems and increasing food security is to develop improved plant varieties rapidly. Traditional farming methods practiced since quite some time have decreased the genetic variability of crops. To improve agronomic traits associated with yield, quality, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses in crop plants, several conventional and molecular approaches have been used, including genetic selection, mutagenic breeding, somaclonal variations, whole-genome sequence-based approaches, physical maps, and functional genomic tools. However, recent advances in genome editing technology using programmable nucleases, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), and CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins have opened the door to a new plant breeding era. Therefore, to increase the efficiency of crop breeding, plant breeders and researchers around the world are using novel strategies such as speed breeding, genome editing tools, and high-throughput phenotyping. In this review, we summarize recent findings on several aspects of crop breeding to describe the evolution of plant breeding practices, from traditional to modern speed breeding combined with genome editing tools, which aim to produce crop generations with desired traits annually. View Full-Text
Keywords: food security; food scarcity; conventional breeding; CRISPR/Cas9; CRISPR/Cpf1; high-throughput phenotyping; speed breeding food security; food scarcity; conventional breeding; CRISPR/Cas9; CRISPR/Cpf1; high-throughput phenotyping; speed breeding
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ahmar, S.; Gill, R.A.; Jung, K.-H.; Faheem, A.; Qasim, M.U.; Mubeen, M.; Zhou, W. Conventional and Molecular Techniques from Simple Breeding to Speed Breeding in Crop Plants: Recent Advances and Future Outlook. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 2590. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21072590

AMA Style

Ahmar S, Gill RA, Jung K-H, Faheem A, Qasim MU, Mubeen M, Zhou W. Conventional and Molecular Techniques from Simple Breeding to Speed Breeding in Crop Plants: Recent Advances and Future Outlook. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(7):2590. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21072590

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ahmar, Sunny, Rafaqat A. Gill, Ki-Hong Jung, Aroosha Faheem, Muhammad U. Qasim, Mustansar Mubeen, and Weijun Zhou. 2020. "Conventional and Molecular Techniques from Simple Breeding to Speed Breeding in Crop Plants: Recent Advances and Future Outlook" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 7: 2590. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21072590

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