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Review

Systemic Blood Immune Cell Populations as Biomarkers for the Outcome of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapies

1
Oncoimmunology Group, Biomedical Research Centre Navarrabiomed-UPNA, IdISNA, Irunlarrea 3, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
2
Department of Oncology, Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra, IdISNA, Irunlarrea 3, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(7), 2411; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21072411
Received: 28 February 2020 / Revised: 25 March 2020 / Accepted: 28 March 2020 / Published: 31 March 2020
The development of cancer immunotherapy in the last decade has followed a vertiginous rhythm. Nowadays, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) which include anti-CTLA4, anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 antibodies are in clinical use for the treatment of numerous cancers. However, approximately only a third of the patients benefit from ICI therapies. Many efforts have been made for the identification of biomarkers allowing patient stratification into potential responders and progressors before the start of ICI therapies or for monitoring responses during treatment. While much attention is centered on biomarkers from the tumor microenvironment, in many cases biopsies are not available. The identification of systemic immune cell subsets that correlate with responses could provide promising biomarkers. Some of them have been reported to influence the response to ICI therapies, such as proliferation and activation status of CD8 and CD4 T cells, the expression of immune checkpoints in peripheral blood cells and the relative numbers of immunosuppressive cells such as regulatory T cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. In addition, the profile of soluble factors in plasma samples could be associated to response or tumor progression. Here we will review the cellular subsets associated to response or progression in different studies and discuss their accuracy in diagnosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: immunotherapy; immune checkpoint inhibitors; systemic blood subsets; CD4+; CD8+; MDSCs immunotherapy; immune checkpoint inhibitors; systemic blood subsets; CD4+; CD8+; MDSCs
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hernandez, C.; Arasanz, H.; Chocarro, L.; Bocanegra, A.; Zuazo, M.; Fernandez-Hinojal, G.; Blanco, E.; Vera, R.; Escors, D.; Kochan, G. Systemic Blood Immune Cell Populations as Biomarkers for the Outcome of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapies. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 2411. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21072411

AMA Style

Hernandez C, Arasanz H, Chocarro L, Bocanegra A, Zuazo M, Fernandez-Hinojal G, Blanco E, Vera R, Escors D, Kochan G. Systemic Blood Immune Cell Populations as Biomarkers for the Outcome of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapies. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(7):2411. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21072411

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hernandez, Carlos, Hugo Arasanz, Luisa Chocarro, Ana Bocanegra, Miren Zuazo, Gonzalo Fernandez-Hinojal, Ester Blanco, Ruth Vera, David Escors, and Grazyna Kochan. 2020. "Systemic Blood Immune Cell Populations as Biomarkers for the Outcome of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapies" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 7: 2411. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21072411

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