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Open AccessArticle

The Role of Biofilms Developed under Different Anthropogenic Pressure on Recruitment of Macro-Invertebrates

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MARE—Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Agência Regional para o Desenvolvimento da Investigação Tecnologia e Inovação (ARDITI), Edifício Madeira Tecnopolo, Piso 0, Caminho da Penteada, 9020-105 Funchal, Madeira, Portugal
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OMM—Oceanic Observatory of Madeira, Agência Regional para o Desenvolvimento da Investigação Tecnologia e Inovação, Edifício Madeira Tecnopolo, Piso 0, Caminho da Penteada, 9020-105 Funchal, Madeira, Portugal
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Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, 647 Contees Wharf Road, Edgewater, MD 21037, USA
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Departamento de Ecoloxía e Bioloxía Animal, Universidade de Vigo, Campus As Lagoas-Marcosende, E-36310 Vigo, Galicia, Spain
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Centro de Investigación Marina, CIM Universidade de Vigo, Illa de Toralla, E-36331 Vigo, Galicia, Spain
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Department of Marine Science and Fisheries, College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat 123, Oman
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Center of Excellence in Marine Biotechnology, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat 123, Oman
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(6), 2030; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21062030
Received: 13 February 2020 / Revised: 12 March 2020 / Accepted: 13 March 2020 / Published: 16 March 2020
Microbial biofilms can be key mediators for settlement of macrofoulers. The present study examines the coupled effects of microbial biofilms and local environmental conditions on the composition, structure and functioning of macrofouling assemblages. Settlement of invertebrates over a gradient of human-impacted sites was investigated on local biofilms and on biofilms developed in marine protected areas (MPAs). Special attention was given to the presence of non-indigenous species (NIS), a global problem that can cause important impacts on local assemblages. In general, the formation of macrofouling assemblages was influenced by the identity of the biofilm. However, these relationships varied across levels of anthropogenic pressure, possibly influenced by environmental conditions and the propagule pressure locally available. While the NIS Watersipora subatra seemed to be inhibited by the biofilm developed in the MPA, Diplosoma cf. listerianum seemed to be attracted by biofilm developed in the MPA only under mid anthropogenic pressure. The obtained information is critical for marine environmental management, urgently needed for the establishment of prevention and control mechanisms to minimize the settlement of NIS and mitigate their threats. View Full-Text
Keywords: diatoms; bacteria; larval recruitment; biofouling; non-indigenous species diatoms; bacteria; larval recruitment; biofouling; non-indigenous species
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cacabelos, E.; Ramalhosa, P.; Canning-Clode, J.; Troncoso, J.S.; Olabarria, C.; Delgado, C.; Dobretsov, S.; Gestoso, I. The Role of Biofilms Developed under Different Anthropogenic Pressure on Recruitment of Macro-Invertebrates. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 2030.

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