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Strategies for Neuroprotection in Multiple Sclerosis and the Role of Calcium

1
Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Krankenhausstraße 9, D-91054 Erlangen, Germany
2
Department of Neurology, Klinikum St. Marien Amberg, Mariahilfbergweg 7, D-92224 Amberg, Germany
3
Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Fahrstraße 17, D-91054 Erlangen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(5), 1663; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21051663
Received: 6 February 2020 / Revised: 16 February 2020 / Accepted: 26 February 2020 / Published: 28 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CNS Drug Action in Neurodegenerative Diseases)
Calcium ions are vital for maintaining the physiological and biochemical processes inside cells. The central nervous system (CNS) is particularly dependent on calcium homeostasis and its dysregulation has been associated with several neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson’s disease (PD), Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Huntington’s disease (HD), as well as with multiple sclerosis (MS). Hence, the modulation of calcium influx into the cells and the targeting of calcium-mediated signaling pathways may present a promising therapeutic approach for these diseases. This review provides an overview on calcium channels in neurons and glial cells. Special emphasis is put on MS, a chronic autoimmune disease of the CNS. While the initial relapsing-remitting stage of MS can be treated effectively with immune modulatory and immunosuppressive drugs, the subsequent progressive stage has remained largely untreatable. Here we summarize several approaches that have been and are currently being tested for their neuroprotective capacities in MS and we discuss which role calcium could play in this regard. View Full-Text
Keywords: calcium channels; calcium homeostasis; dihydropyridines; multiple sclerosis; neurodegeneration; neuroprotection; nimodipine; remyelination calcium channels; calcium homeostasis; dihydropyridines; multiple sclerosis; neurodegeneration; neuroprotection; nimodipine; remyelination
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Enders, M.; Heider, T.; Ludwig, A.; Kuerten, S. Strategies for Neuroprotection in Multiple Sclerosis and the Role of Calcium. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 1663.

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