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Review

The Central Role of Non-Structural Protein 1 (NS1) in Influenza Biology and Infection

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Coimbra Chemistry Center, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra, Portugal
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CNC—Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology. University of Coimbra, UC Biotech Building, 3060-197 Cantanhede, Portugal
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Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares and Departamento de Engenharia e Ciências Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS, Portugal
4
Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, 3000-456 Coimbra, Portugal
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(4), 1511; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21041511
Received: 23 November 2019 / Revised: 23 January 2020 / Accepted: 24 January 2020 / Published: 22 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Signaling Pathways in the Viral Life Cycle)
Influenza (flu) is a contagious viral disease, which targets the human respiratory tract and spreads throughout the world each year. Every year, influenza infects around 10% of the world population and between 290,000 and 650,000 people die from it according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Influenza viruses belong to the Orthomyxoviridae family and have a negative sense eight-segment single-stranded RNA genome that encodes 11 different proteins. The only control over influenza seasonal epidemic outbreaks around the world are vaccines, annually updated according to viral strains in circulation, but, because of high rates of mutation and recurrent genetic assortment, new viral strains of influenza are constantly emerging, increasing the likelihood of pandemics. Vaccination effectiveness is limited, calling for new preventive and therapeutic approaches and a better understanding of the virus–host interactions. In particular, grasping the role of influenza non-structural protein 1 (NS1) and related known interactions in the host cell is pivotal to better understand the mechanisms of virus infection and replication, and thus propose more effective antiviral approaches. In this review, we assess the structure of NS1, its dynamics, and multiple functions and interactions, to highlight the central role of this protein in viral biology and its potential use as an effective therapeutic target to tackle seasonal and pandemic influenza. View Full-Text
Keywords: protein structure; structural bioinformatics; molecular modeling; protein–protein interactions; PPIs; influenza virus; NS1 protein structure; structural bioinformatics; molecular modeling; protein–protein interactions; PPIs; influenza virus; NS1
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rosário-Ferreira, N.; Preto, A.J.; Melo, R.; Moreira, I.S.; Brito, R.M.M. The Central Role of Non-Structural Protein 1 (NS1) in Influenza Biology and Infection. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 1511. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21041511

AMA Style

Rosário-Ferreira N, Preto AJ, Melo R, Moreira IS, Brito RMM. The Central Role of Non-Structural Protein 1 (NS1) in Influenza Biology and Infection. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(4):1511. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21041511

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rosário-Ferreira, Nícia, António J. Preto, Rita Melo, Irina S. Moreira, and Rui M.M. Brito. 2020. "The Central Role of Non-Structural Protein 1 (NS1) in Influenza Biology and Infection" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 4: 1511. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21041511

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