Bone and muscle represent a single functional system and are tightly connected to each other. Indeed, diseases characterized by alterations of muscle physiology have effects on bone remodeling and structure and vice versa. Muscle influence on bone has been deeply studied, and recent studies identified irisin as new molecule involved in this crosstalk. Muscle regulation by bone needs to be extensively investigated since in the last few years osteocalcin was recognized as a key molecule in the bone–muscle interaction. Osteocalcin can exist in two forms with different degrees of carboxylation. The undercarboxylated form of osteocalcin is a hormone released by the bone matrix during the osteoclast bone resorption and can bind its G-protein coupled receptor GPRC6A expressed in the muscle, thus regulating its function. Recently, this hormone was described as an antiaging molecule for its ability to regulate bone, muscle and cognitive functions. Indeed, the features of this bone-related hormone were used to test a new therapeutic approach for sarcopenia, since injection of osteocalcin in older mice induces the acquirement of physical abilities of younger animals. Even if this approach should be tested in humans, osteocalcin represents the most surprising molecule in endocrine regulation by the skeleton.
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