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Article

Black Edible Films from Protein-Containing Defatted Cake of Nigella sativa Seeds

1
Department of Nutrition and Food Technology, An-Najah National University, Nablus P.O. Box: 7, Palestine
2
Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples “Federico II”, 80126 Naples, Italy
3
Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, 80138 Naples, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(3), 832; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21030832
Received: 9 December 2019 / Revised: 18 January 2020 / Accepted: 26 January 2020 / Published: 28 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biopolymers as Food Packaging Materials)
Black biodegradable/edible protein-based films were prepared from defatted cake waste obtained from Nigella sativa (black cumin) seeds as by-product of oil extraction process. The effects of pH, glycerol concentrations, and transglutaminase-catalyzed protein cross-linking activity on the stability of film-forming solutions were studied to determine the best experimental conditions to produce handleable films. Proteins contained in the analyzed defatted cake were shown to be able to act as transglutaminase acyl donor and acceptor substrates being polymerized when incubated in vitro in the presence of the enzyme. Film-forming solutions containing 20% glycerol and casted at pH 8.0 after treatment with the enzyme gave rise to morphologically more homogeneous films possessing mechanical and barrier properties, as well as antimicrobial activity, compatible with their possible applications as food packaging materials and mulching sheets. These findings confirm the validity of the strategy to consider the seed oil processed cakes as protein-based renewable sources to produce not only fertilizers, animal feed, or culinary food but also further valuable products such as bioplastics. View Full-Text
Keywords: Nigella sativa; protein-based films; industrial biorenewables; oil-seed waste; transglutaminase Nigella sativa; protein-based films; industrial biorenewables; oil-seed waste; transglutaminase
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sabbah, M.; Altamimi, M.; Di Pierro, P.; Schiraldi, C.; Cammarota, M.; Porta, R. Black Edible Films from Protein-Containing Defatted Cake of Nigella sativa Seeds. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 832. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21030832

AMA Style

Sabbah M, Altamimi M, Di Pierro P, Schiraldi C, Cammarota M, Porta R. Black Edible Films from Protein-Containing Defatted Cake of Nigella sativa Seeds. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(3):832. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21030832

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sabbah, Mohammed, Mohammad Altamimi, Prospero Di Pierro, Chiara Schiraldi, Marcella Cammarota, and Raffaele Porta. 2020. "Black Edible Films from Protein-Containing Defatted Cake of Nigella sativa Seeds" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 3: 832. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21030832

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