Next Article in Journal
Disruption of the Unique ABCG-Family NBD:NBD Interface Impacts Both Drug Transport and ATP Hydrolysis
Next Article in Special Issue
Discrete Hedgehog Factor Expression and Action in the Developing Phallus
Previous Article in Journal
Immunologic and Non-Immunologic Mechanisms Leading to Airway Remodeling in Asthma
Previous Article in Special Issue
Sonic Hedgehog Regulates Bone Fracture Healing
Open AccessReview

Sonic Hedgehog Signaling in Organogenesis, Tumors, and Tumor Microenvironments

Department of Surgery and Medical Research, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, New Taipei 220, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(3), 758;
Received: 27 December 2019 / Revised: 20 January 2020 / Accepted: 20 January 2020 / Published: 23 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hedgehog Signaling in Organogenesis and Tumor Microenvironment)
During mammalian embryonic development, primary cilia transduce and regulate several signaling pathways. Among the various pathways, Sonic hedgehog (SHH) is one of the most significant. SHH signaling remains quiescent in adult mammalian tissues. However, in multiple adult tissues, it becomes active during differentiation, proliferation, and maintenance. Moreover, aberrant activation of SHH signaling occurs in cancers of the skin, brain, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, stomach, colon, breast, lung, prostate, and hematological malignancies. Recent studies have shown that the tumor microenvironment or stroma could affect tumor development and metastasis. One hypothesis has been proposed, claiming that the pancreatic epithelia secretes SHH that is essential in establishing and regulating the pancreatic tumor microenvironment in promoting cancer progression. The SHH signaling pathway is also activated in the cancer stem cells (CSC) of several neoplasms. The self-renewal of CSC is regulated by the SHH/Smoothened receptor (SMO)/Glioma-associated oncogene homolog I (GLI) signaling pathway. Combined use of SHH signaling inhibitors and chemotherapy/radiation therapy/immunotherapy is therefore key in targeting CSCs. View Full-Text
Keywords: hedgehog; smoothened; cancer stem cells hedgehog; smoothened; cancer stem cells
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Jeng, K.-S.; Chang, C.-F.; Lin, S.-S. Sonic Hedgehog Signaling in Organogenesis, Tumors, and Tumor Microenvironments. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 758.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop