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The Lipid Paradox as a Metabolic Checkpoint and Its Therapeutic Significance in Ameliorating the Associated Cardiovascular Risks in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

1
Chitkara College of Pharmacy, Chitkara University, Punjab 140401, India
2
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Selcuk University Campus, 42130 Konya, Turkey
3
Department of Medical Disciplines, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Oradea, 410073 Oradea, Romania
4
Department of Psycho-Neuroscience and Recovery, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Oradea, 410073 Oradea, Romania
5
Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Oradea, 410028 Oradea, Romania
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(24), 9505; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21249505
Received: 31 October 2020 / Revised: 7 December 2020 / Accepted: 12 December 2020 / Published: 14 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Role of Lipids in Metabolism and Disease – 2nd Edition)
While the most common manifestations associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are synovial damage and inflammation, the systemic effects of this autoimmune disorder are life-threatening, and are prevalent in 0.5–1% of the population, mainly associated with cardiovascular disorders (CVDs). Such effects have been instigated by an altered lipid profile in RA patients, which has been reported to correlate with CV risks. Altered lipid paradox is related to inflammatory burden in RA patients. The review highlights general lipid pathways (exogenous and endogenous), along with the changes in different forms of lipids and lipoproteins in RA conditions, which further contribute to elevated risks of CVDs like ischemic heart disease, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction etc. The authors provide a deep insight on altered levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TGs) in RA patients and their consequence on the cardiovascular health of the patient. This is followed by a detailed description of the impact of anti-rheumatoid therapy on the lipid profile in RA patients, comprising DMARDs, corticosteroids, anti-TNF agents, anti-IL-6 agents, JAK inhibitors and statins. Furthermore, this review elaborates on the prospects to be considered to optimize future investigation on management of RA and treatment therapies targeting altered lipid paradigms in patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis; cardiovascular disorders; lipid paradox; inflammatory burden; LDL-C; HDL-C; lipoproteins; atherosclerosis; DMARDs rheumatoid arthritis; cardiovascular disorders; lipid paradox; inflammatory burden; LDL-C; HDL-C; lipoproteins; atherosclerosis; DMARDs
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MDPI and ACS Style

Behl, T.; Kaur, I.; Sehgal, A.; Zengin, G.; Brisc, C.; Brisc, M.C.; Munteanu, M.A.; Nistor-Cseppento, D.C.; Bungau, S. The Lipid Paradox as a Metabolic Checkpoint and Its Therapeutic Significance in Ameliorating the Associated Cardiovascular Risks in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 9505. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21249505

AMA Style

Behl T, Kaur I, Sehgal A, Zengin G, Brisc C, Brisc MC, Munteanu MA, Nistor-Cseppento DC, Bungau S. The Lipid Paradox as a Metabolic Checkpoint and Its Therapeutic Significance in Ameliorating the Associated Cardiovascular Risks in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(24):9505. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21249505

Chicago/Turabian Style

Behl, Tapan; Kaur, Ishnoor; Sehgal, Aayush; Zengin, Gokhan; Brisc, Ciprian; Brisc, Mihaela C.; Munteanu, Mihai A.; Nistor-Cseppento, Delia C.; Bungau, Simona. 2020. "The Lipid Paradox as a Metabolic Checkpoint and Its Therapeutic Significance in Ameliorating the Associated Cardiovascular Risks in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 21, no. 24: 9505. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21249505

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