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Photobiomodulation of the Visual System and Human Health

Light Pollution and Cancer

Department of Neuroscience, Rockefeller Neuroscience Institute, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA
Department of Medicine, Division of Oncology/Hematology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA
West Virginia University Cancer Institute, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(24), 9360;
Received: 24 November 2020 / Revised: 4 December 2020 / Accepted: 6 December 2020 / Published: 8 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Light's Effects on Animals and Humans)
For many individuals in industrialized nations, the widespread adoption of electric lighting has dramatically affected the circadian organization of physiology and behavior. Although initially assumed to be innocuous, exposure to artificial light at night (ALAN) is associated with several disorders, including increased incidence of cancer, metabolic disorders, and mood disorders. Within this review, we present a brief overview of the molecular circadian clock system and the importance of maintaining fidelity to bright days and dark nights. We describe the interrelation between core clock genes and the cell cycle, as well as the contribution of clock genes to oncogenesis. Next, we review the clinical implications of disrupted circadian rhythms on cancer, followed by a section on the foundational science literature on the effects of light at night and cancer. Finally, we provide some strategies for mitigation of disrupted circadian rhythms to improve health. View Full-Text
Keywords: light at night; cancer; circadian rhythms; clock genes; cell cycle light at night; cancer; circadian rhythms; clock genes; cell cycle
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MDPI and ACS Style

Walker, W.H., II; Bumgarner, J.R.; Walton, J.C.; Liu, J.A.; Meléndez-Fernández, O.H.; Nelson, R.J.; DeVries, A.C. Light Pollution and Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 9360.

AMA Style

Walker WH II, Bumgarner JR, Walton JC, Liu JA, Meléndez-Fernández OH, Nelson RJ, DeVries AC. Light Pollution and Cancer. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(24):9360.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Walker, William H., II, Jacob R. Bumgarner, James C. Walton, Jennifer A. Liu, O. H. Meléndez-Fernández, Randy J. Nelson, and A. C. DeVries. 2020. "Light Pollution and Cancer" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 24: 9360.

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