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Overcoming Immune Evasion in Melanoma
Open AccessReview

Immunostimulatory Effects of Radiotherapy for Local and Systemic Control of Melanoma: A Review

1
Health and Medical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566, Japan
2
Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(23), 9324; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21239324
Received: 30 September 2020 / Revised: 4 December 2020 / Accepted: 5 December 2020 / Published: 7 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunotherapy of Melanoma: Challenges and Solutions)
Recently, modern therapies involving immune checkpoint inhibitors, cytokines, and oncolytic virus have been developed. Because of the limited treatment effect of modern therapy alone, the immunostimulatory effect of radiotherapy attracted increasing attention. The combined use of radiotherapy and modern therapy has been examined clinically and non-clinically, and its effectiveness has been confirmed recently. Because melanomas have high immunogenicity, better therapeutic outcomes are desired when using immunotherapy. However, sufficient therapeutic effects have not yet been achieved. Thus far, radiotherapy has been used only for local control of tumors. Although extremely rare, radiotherapy has also been reported for systemic control, i.e., abscopal effect. This is thought to be due to an antitumor immune response. Therefore, we herein summarize past information on not only the mechanism of immune effects on radiotherapy but also biomarkers reported in case reports on abscopal effects. We also reviewed the animal model suitable for evaluating abscopal effects. These results pave the way for further basic research or clinical studies on new treatment methods for melanoma. Currently, palliative radiation is administered to patients with metastatic melanoma for local control. If it is feasible to provide both systemic and local control, the treatment benefit for the patients is very large. View Full-Text
Keywords: radiotherapy; radioimmunotherapy; abscopal effect; melanoma; immunotherapy radiotherapy; radioimmunotherapy; abscopal effect; melanoma; immunotherapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Takahashi, J.; Nagasawa, S. Immunostimulatory Effects of Radiotherapy for Local and Systemic Control of Melanoma: A Review. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 9324. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21239324

AMA Style

Takahashi J, Nagasawa S. Immunostimulatory Effects of Radiotherapy for Local and Systemic Control of Melanoma: A Review. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(23):9324. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21239324

Chicago/Turabian Style

Takahashi, Junko; Nagasawa, Shinsuke. 2020. "Immunostimulatory Effects of Radiotherapy for Local and Systemic Control of Melanoma: A Review" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 21, no. 23: 9324. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21239324

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