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Nanosystems Applied to HIV Infection: Prevention and Treatments
Open AccessArticle

Photoimmunotherapy Using Cationic and Anionic Photosensitizer-Antibody Conjugates against HIV Env-Expressing Cells

1
São Carlos Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, São Carlos, SP 13566-590, Brazil
2
Department of Chemistry, University College London, London WC1H 0AJ, UK
3
Laboratório de Retrovirologia, Disciplina de Microbiologia, Departamento de Microbiologia Imunologia Parasitologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP 04039-032, Brazil
4
Department of Chemistry, University of Hull, Cottingham Road, Hull HU6 7RX, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current addresses: Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Caixa Postal 369, São Carlos, SP 13566-590, Brazil.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(23), 9151; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21239151
Received: 22 October 2020 / Revised: 20 November 2020 / Accepted: 21 November 2020 / Published: 1 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV))
Different therapeutic strategies have been investigated to target and eliminate HIV-1-infected cells by using armed antibodies specific to viral proteins, with varying degrees of success. Herein, we propose a new strategy by combining photodynamic therapy (PDT) with HIV Env-targeted immunotherapy, and refer to it as HIV photoimmunotherapy (PIT). A human anti-gp41 antibody (7B2) was conjugated to two photosensitizers (PSs) with different charges through different linking strategies; “Click” conjugation by using an azide-bearing porphyrin attached via a disulfide bridge linker with a drug-to-antibody ratio (DAR) of exactly 4, and “Lysine” conjugation by using phthalocyanine IRDye 700DX dye with average DARs of 2.1, 3.0 and 4.4. These photo-immunoconjugates (PICs) were compared via biochemical and immunological characterizations regarding the dosimetry, solubility, and cell targeting. Photo-induced cytotoxicity of the PICs were compared using assays for apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), photo-cytotoxicity, and confocal microscopy. Targeted phototoxicity seems to be primarily dependent on the binding of PS-antibody to the HIV antigen on the cell membrane, whilst being independent of the PS type. This is the first report of the application of PIT for HIV immunotherapy by killing HIV Env-expressing cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: HIV immunotherapy; photoimmunotherapy; photodynamic therapy; porphyrin; phthalocyanine; HIV-infected cell; monoclonal antibody HIV immunotherapy; photoimmunotherapy; photodynamic therapy; porphyrin; phthalocyanine; HIV-infected cell; monoclonal antibody
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sadraeian, M.; Bahou, C.; da Cruz, E.F.; Janini, L.M.R.; Sobhie Diaz, R.; Boyle, R.W.; Chudasama, V.; Eduardo Gontijo Guimarães, F. Photoimmunotherapy Using Cationic and Anionic Photosensitizer-Antibody Conjugates against HIV Env-Expressing Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 9151. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21239151

AMA Style

Sadraeian M, Bahou C, da Cruz EF, Janini LMR, Sobhie Diaz R, Boyle RW, Chudasama V, Eduardo Gontijo Guimarães F. Photoimmunotherapy Using Cationic and Anionic Photosensitizer-Antibody Conjugates against HIV Env-Expressing Cells. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(23):9151. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21239151

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sadraeian, Mohammad; Bahou, Calise; da Cruz, Edgar F.; Janini, Luíz M.R.; Sobhie Diaz, Ricardo; Boyle, Ross W.; Chudasama, Vijay; Eduardo Gontijo Guimarães, Francisco. 2020. "Photoimmunotherapy Using Cationic and Anionic Photosensitizer-Antibody Conjugates against HIV Env-Expressing Cells" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 21, no. 23: 9151. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21239151

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