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Neurodegeneration and Inflammation—An Interesting Interplay in Parkinson’s Disease

1
Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Larissa, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, 41110 Larissa, Greece
2
Department of Neurology, Medical School, University of Cyprus, 1678 Nicosia, Cyprus
3
Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of Larissa, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, 41110 Larissa, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(22), 8421; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21228421
Received: 20 September 2020 / Revised: 30 October 2020 / Accepted: 6 November 2020 / Published: 10 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Biomarkers of Selected Diseases of Civilization)
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, caused by, so far, unknown pathogenetic mechanisms. There is no doubt that pro-inflammatory immune-mediated mechanisms are pivotal to the pathogenicity and progression of the disease. In this review, we highlight the binary role of microglia activation in the pathophysiology of the disorder, both neuroprotective and neuromodulatory. We present how the expression of several cytokines implicated in dopaminergic neurons (DA) degeneration could be used as biomarkers for PD. Viral infections have been studied and correlated to the disease progression, usually operating as trigger factors for the inflammatory process. The gut–brain axis and the possible contribution of the peripheral bowel inflammation to neuronal death, mainly dopaminergic neurons, seems to be a main contributor of brain neuroinflammation. The role of the immune system has also been analyzed implicating a-synuclein in the activation of innate and adaptive immunity. We also discuss therapeutic approaches concerning PD and neuroinflammation, which have been studied in experimental and in vitro models and data stemming from epidemiological studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: Parkinson’s; neuroinflammation; neurodegeneration; autoimmunity Parkinson’s; neuroinflammation; neurodegeneration; autoimmunity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Marogianni, C.; Sokratous, M.; Dardiotis, E.; Hadjigeorgiou, G.M.; Bogdanos, D.; Xiromerisiou, G. Neurodegeneration and Inflammation—An Interesting Interplay in Parkinson’s Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 8421. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21228421

AMA Style

Marogianni C, Sokratous M, Dardiotis E, Hadjigeorgiou GM, Bogdanos D, Xiromerisiou G. Neurodegeneration and Inflammation—An Interesting Interplay in Parkinson’s Disease. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(22):8421. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21228421

Chicago/Turabian Style

Marogianni, Chrysoula; Sokratous, Maria; Dardiotis, Efthimios; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M.; Bogdanos, Dimitrios; Xiromerisiou, Georgia. 2020. "Neurodegeneration and Inflammation—An Interesting Interplay in Parkinson’s Disease" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 21, no. 22: 8421. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21228421

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