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Open AccessReview

Review of Chitosan-Based Polymers as Proton Exchange Membranes and Roles of Chitosan-Supported Ionic Liquids

1
Fuel Cell Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Department of Chemistry–Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 538, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden
3
Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia
4
College of Energy Economics and Social Sciences, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Jalan IKRAM-UNITEN, Kajang 43000, Selangor, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(2), 632; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21020632
Received: 8 November 2019 / Revised: 4 December 2019 / Accepted: 11 December 2019 / Published: 17 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitosan Functionalizations, Formulations and Composites)
Perfluorosulphonic acid-based membranes such as Nafion are widely used in fuel cell applications. However, these membranes have several drawbacks, including high expense, non-eco-friendliness, and low proton conductivity under anhydrous conditions. Biopolymer-based membranes, such as chitosan (CS), cellulose, and carrageenan, are popular. They have been introduced and are being studied as alternative materials for enhancing fuel cell performance, because they are environmentally friendly and economical. Modifications that will enhance the proton conductivity of biopolymer-based membranes have been performed. Ionic liquids, which are good electrolytes, are studied for their potential to improve the ionic conductivity and thermal stability of fuel cell applications. This review summarizes the development and evolution of CS biopolymer-based membranes and ionic liquids in fuel cell applications over the past decade. It also focuses on the improved performances of fuel cell applications using biopolymer-based membranes and ionic liquids as promising clean energy. View Full-Text
Keywords: chitosan biopolymer-based membrane; ionic liquids; performance of fuel cell; fuel cell applications chitosan biopolymer-based membrane; ionic liquids; performance of fuel cell; fuel cell applications
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rosli, N.A.H.; Loh, K.S.; Wong, W.Y.; Yunus, R.M.; Lee, T.K.; Ahmad, A.; Chong, S.T. Review of Chitosan-Based Polymers as Proton Exchange Membranes and Roles of Chitosan-Supported Ionic Liquids. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 632.

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