GRK2-Mediated Crosstalk Between β-Adrenergic and Angiotensin II Receptors Enhances Adrenocortical Aldosterone Production In Vitro and In Vivo
Laboratory for the Study of Neurohormonal Control of the Circulation, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Pharmacology), College of Pharmacy, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33328, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Nova Southeastern University 3200 S. University, HPD (Terry) Bldg/Room 1338, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33328, USA.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(2), 574; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21020574
Received: 19 December 2019 / Revised: 6 January 2020 / Accepted: 13 January 2020 / Published: 16 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GRKs and Arrestins in Human Health and Disease)
Aldosterone is produced by adrenocortical zona glomerulosa (AZG) cells in response to angiotensin II (AngII) acting through its type I receptors (AT1Rs). AT1R is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that induces aldosterone via both G proteins and the adapter protein βarrestin1, which binds the receptor following its phosphorylation by GPCR-kinases (GRKs) to initiate G protein-independent signaling. β-adrenergic receptors (ARs) also induce aldosterone production in AZG cells. Herein, we investigated whether GRK2 or GRK5, the two major adrenal GRKs, is involved in the catecholaminergic regulation of AngII-dependent aldosterone production. In human AZG (H295R) cells in vitro, the βAR agonist isoproterenol significantly augmented both AngII-dependent aldosterone secretion and synthesis, as measured by the steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein and CYP11B2 (aldosterone synthase) mRNA inductions. Importantly, GRK2, but not GRK5, was indispensable for the βAR-mediated enhancement of aldosterone in response to AngII. Specifically, GRK2 inhibition with Cmpd101 abolished isoproterenol’s effects on AngII-induced aldosterone synthesis/secretion, whereas the GRK5 knockout via CRISPR/Cas9 had no effect. It is worth noting that these findings were confirmed in vivo, since rats overexpressing GRK2, but not GRK5, in their adrenals had elevated circulating aldosterone levels compared to the control animals. However, treatment with the β-blocker propranolol prevented hyperaldosteronism in the adrenal GRK2-overexpressing rats. In conclusion, GRK2 mediates a βAR-AT1R signaling crosstalk in the adrenal cortex leading to elevated aldosterone production. This suggests that adrenal GRK2 may be a molecular link connecting the sympathetic nervous and renin-angiotensin systems at the level of the adrenal cortex and that its inhibition might be therapeutically advantageous in hyperaldosteronism-related conditions.