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Open AccessArticle

N-Acetyl Cysteine Modulates the Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Responses of Rescued Growth-Arrested Dental Pulp Microtissues Exposed to TEGDMA in ECM

ADA Science & Research Institute, LLC, Department of Innovation & Technology Research, Hagerstown, MD 21742, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(19), 7318; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21197318
Received: 20 August 2020 / Revised: 30 September 2020 / Accepted: 1 October 2020 / Published: 3 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Matrix in Development and Disease 2.0)
Dental pulp is exposed to resin monomers leaching from capping materials. Toxic doses of the monomer, triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), impact cell growth, enhance inflammatory and oxidative stress responses, and lead to tissue necrosis. A therapeutic agent is required to rescue growth-arrested tissues by continuing their development and modulating the exacerbated responses. The functionality of N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) as a treatment was assessed by employing a 3D dental pulp microtissue platform. Immortalized and primary microtissues developed and matured in the extracellular matrix (ECM). TEGDMA was introduced at various concentrations. NAC was administered simultaneously with TEGDMA, before or after monomer addition during the development and after the maturation stages of the microtissue. Spatial growth was validated by confocal microscopy and image processing. Levels of inflammatory (COX2, NLRP3, IL-8) and oxidative stress (GSH, Nrf2) markers were quantified by immunoassays. NAC treatments, in parallel with TEGDMA challenge or post-challenge, resumed the growth of the underdeveloped microtissues and protected mature microtissues from deterioration. Growth recovery correlated with the alleviation of both responses by decreasing significantly the intracellular and extracellular levels of the markers. Our 3D/ECM-based dental pulp platform is an efficient tool for drug rescue screening. NAC supports compromised microtissues development, and immunomodulates and maintains the oxidative balance. View Full-Text
Keywords: N-Acetyl Cysteine; rescue; dental pulp; 3D/ECM cell cultures; spatial growth; inflammation; stress response N-Acetyl Cysteine; rescue; dental pulp; 3D/ECM cell cultures; spatial growth; inflammation; stress response
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kaufman, G.; Skrtic, D. N-Acetyl Cysteine Modulates the Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Responses of Rescued Growth-Arrested Dental Pulp Microtissues Exposed to TEGDMA in ECM. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 7318. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21197318

AMA Style

Kaufman G, Skrtic D. N-Acetyl Cysteine Modulates the Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Responses of Rescued Growth-Arrested Dental Pulp Microtissues Exposed to TEGDMA in ECM. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(19):7318. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21197318

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kaufman, Gili; Skrtic, Drago. 2020. "N-Acetyl Cysteine Modulates the Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Responses of Rescued Growth-Arrested Dental Pulp Microtissues Exposed to TEGDMA in ECM" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 21, no. 19: 7318. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21197318

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