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Relevance of Porcine Stroke Models to Bridge the Gap from Pre-Clinical Findings to Clinical Implementation

1
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology Research Group, Department of Neurosciences, Germans Trias i Pujol Research Institute, 08916 Badalona, Catalonia, Spain
2
Neurointerventional Radiology Unit, Department of Neurosciences, Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, 08916 Badalona, Catalonia, Spain
3
Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, 08916 Badalona, Catalonia, Spain
4
Department of Cellular Biology, Physiology and Immunology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08916 Bellaterra, Catalonia, Spain
5
Fundació Institut d’Investigació en Ciències de la Salut Germans Trias i Pujol (IGTP), Carretera del Canyet, Camí de les Escoles s/n, Edifici Mar, 08916 Badalona, Catalonia, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(18), 6568; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21186568
Received: 18 August 2020 / Revised: 3 September 2020 / Accepted: 7 September 2020 / Published: 8 September 2020
In the search of animal stroke models providing translational advantages for biomedical research, pigs are large mammals with interesting brain characteristics and wide social acceptance. Compared to rodents, pigs have human-like highly gyrencephalic brains. In addition, increasingly through phylogeny, animals have more sophisticated white matter connectivity; thus, ratios of white-to-gray matter in humans and pigs are higher than in rodents. Swine models provide the opportunity to study the effect of stroke with emphasis on white matter damage and neuroanatomical changes in connectivity, and their pathophysiological correlate. In addition, the subarachnoid space surrounding the swine brain resembles that of humans. This allows the accumulation of blood and clots in subarachnoid hemorrhage models mimicking the clinical condition. The clot accumulation has been reported to mediate pathological mechanisms known to contribute to infarct progression and final damage in stroke patients. Importantly, swine allows trustworthy tracking of brain damage evolution using the same non-invasive multimodal imaging sequences used in the clinical practice. Moreover, several models of comorbidities and pathologies usually found in stroke patients have recently been established in swine. We review here ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke models reported so far in pigs. The advantages and limitations of each model are also discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: stroke; animal models; pig; swine; gyrencephalic brain; white matter damage; connectivity; translational research stroke; animal models; pig; swine; gyrencephalic brain; white matter damage; connectivity; translational research
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Melià-Sorolla, M.; Castaño, C.; DeGregorio-Rocasolano, N.; Rodríguez-Esparragoza, L.; Dávalos, A.; Martí-Sistac, O.; Gasull, T. Relevance of Porcine Stroke Models to Bridge the Gap from Pre-Clinical Findings to Clinical Implementation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 6568.

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