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Genetic and Epigenetic Aspects of Atopic Dermatitis

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Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, Medical University of Gdańsk,80-210 Gdańsk, Poland
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Invicta Laboratory, Trzy Lipy 3, 80-172 Gdańsk, Poland
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Department of Molecular Genetics and Epigenetics, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, 91-348 Łódź, Poland
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University of Gdansk, Intercollegiate Faculty of Biotechnology of University of Gdańsk and Medical University of Gdansk, 80-307 Gdansk, Poland
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MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DS, UK
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Biobank Lab, Department of Molecular Biophysics, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, 90-231 Łódź, Poland
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Department of Allergology, Medical University of Gdańsk, 80-210 Gdańsk, Poland
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Department of Surgical Oncology, Medical University of Gdańsk, 80-210 Gdańsk, Poland
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Department of Medical Laboratory Diagnostics—Biobank, Medical University of Gdańsk, 80-210 Gdańsk, Poland
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Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure Poland (BBMRI.PL), 80-210 Gdańsk, Poland
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Department of Bioengineering, Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
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Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
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Dermatology Students Scientific Circle in the Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, 80-210 Gdańsk, Poland
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Department of Mechanics of Materials and Structures, Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdańsk University of Technology, 80-233 Gdansk, Poland
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(18), 6484; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21186484
Received: 31 July 2020 / Revised: 2 September 2020 / Accepted: 2 September 2020 / Published: 4 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Therapy and Prevention of Atopic Dermatitis and Psoriasis 2020)
Atopic dermatitis is a heterogeneous disease, in which the pathogenesis is associated with mutations in genes encoding epidermal structural proteins, barrier enzymes, and their inhibitors; the role of genes regulating innate and adaptive immune responses and environmental factors inducing the disease is also noted. Recent studies point to the key role of epigenetic changes in the development of the disease. Epigenetic modifications are mainly mediated by DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and the action of specific non-coding RNAs. It has been documented that the profile of epigenetic changes in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) differs from that observed in healthy people. This applies to the genes affecting the regulation of immune response and inflammatory processes, e.g., both affecting Th1 bias and promoting Th2 responses and the genes of innate immunity, as well as those encoding the structural proteins of the epidermis. Understanding of the epigenetic alterations is therefore pivotal to both create new molecular classifications of atopic dermatitis and to enable the development of personalized treatment strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: genetics; atopic dermatitis; skin barrier dysfunction; FLG; SPINK genes; epigenome; DNA methylation; histone modifications; micro-RNA genetics; atopic dermatitis; skin barrier dysfunction; FLG; SPINK genes; epigenome; DNA methylation; histone modifications; micro-RNA
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Nedoszytko, B.; Reszka, E.; Gutowska-Owsiak, D.; Trzeciak, M.; Lange, M.; Jarczak, J.; Niedoszytko, M.; Jablonska, E.; Romantowski, J.; Strapagiel, D.; Skokowski, J.; Siekierzycka, A.; Nowicki, R.J.; Dobrucki, I.T.; Zaryczańska, A.; Kalinowski, L. Genetic and Epigenetic Aspects of Atopic Dermatitis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 6484.

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