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Review

Current Methods of Magnetic Resonance for Noninvasive Assessment of Molecular Aspects of Pathoetiology in Multiple Sclerosis

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Biomedical Center Martin, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin, Comenius University in Bratislava, 036 01 Martin, Slovakia
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Clinic of Neurology, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin, Comenius University in Bratislava, 036 01 Martin, Slovakia
3
Clinic of Radiology, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin, Comenius University in Bratislava, 036 01 Martin, Slovakia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(17), 6117; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21176117
Received: 19 June 2020 / Revised: 13 August 2020 / Accepted: 21 August 2020 / Published: 25 August 2020
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease with expanding axonal and neuronal degeneration in the central nervous system leading to motoric dysfunctions, psychical disability, and cognitive impairment during MS progression. The exact cascade of pathological processes (inflammation, demyelination, excitotoxicity, diffuse neuro-axonal degeneration, oxidative and metabolic stress, etc.) causing MS onset is still not fully understood, although several accompanying biomarkers are particularly suitable for the detection of early subclinical changes. Magnetic resonance (MR) methods are generally considered to be the most sensitive diagnostic tools. Their advantages include their noninvasive nature and their ability to image tissue in vivo. In particular, MR spectroscopy (proton 1H and phosphorus 31P MRS) is a powerful analytical tool for the detection and analysis of biomedically relevant metabolites, amino acids, and bioelements, and thus for providing information about neuro-axonal degradation, demyelination, reactive gliosis, mitochondrial and neurotransmitter failure, cellular energetic and membrane alternation, and the imbalance of magnesium homeostasis in specific tissues. Furthermore, the MR relaxometry-based detection of accumulated biogenic iron in the brain tissue is useful in disease evaluation. The early description and understanding of the developing pathological process might be critical for establishing clinically effective MS-modifying therapies. View Full-Text
Keywords: multiple sclerosis; 1H MRS; 31P MRS; Mg2+; Fe deposits multiple sclerosis; 1H MRS; 31P MRS; Mg2+; Fe deposits
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hnilicová, P.; Štrbák, O.; Kolisek, M.; Kurča, E.; Zeleňák, K.; Sivák, Š.; Kantorová, E. Current Methods of Magnetic Resonance for Noninvasive Assessment of Molecular Aspects of Pathoetiology in Multiple Sclerosis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 6117. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21176117

AMA Style

Hnilicová P, Štrbák O, Kolisek M, Kurča E, Zeleňák K, Sivák Š, Kantorová E. Current Methods of Magnetic Resonance for Noninvasive Assessment of Molecular Aspects of Pathoetiology in Multiple Sclerosis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(17):6117. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21176117

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hnilicová, Petra, Oliver Štrbák, Martin Kolisek, Egon Kurča, Kamil Zeleňák, Štefan Sivák, and Ema Kantorová. 2020. "Current Methods of Magnetic Resonance for Noninvasive Assessment of Molecular Aspects of Pathoetiology in Multiple Sclerosis" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 17: 6117. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21176117

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