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Open AccessReview

Linking LOXL2 to Cardiac Interstitial Fibrosis

1
Biomedical Research and Innovation Platform, South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town 7501, South Africa
2
Department of Medical Physiology, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town 7505, South Africa
3
Hatter Institute for Cardiovascular Research in Africa (HICRA), University of Cape Town, Cape Town 7925, South Africa
4
Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Edouard Herriot, Service de Médecine Intensive-Réanimation, Place d’Arsonval, 69437 Lyon, France
5
Institute de Investigación Sanitaria-FJD, Faculty of Medicine, University Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain
6
Spanish Biomedical Research Centre in Diabetes and Associated Metabolic Disorders (CIBERDEM) Network, 28040 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5913; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21165913
Received: 8 July 2020 / Revised: 23 July 2020 / Accepted: 29 July 2020 / Published: 18 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Myocardial Infarction and Myocardial Protection)
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading causes of death worldwide. CVD pathophysiology is often characterized by increased stiffening of the heart muscle due to fibrosis, thus resulting in diminished cardiac function. Fibrosis can be caused by increased oxidative stress and inflammation, which is strongly linked to lifestyle and environmental factors such as diet, smoking, hyperglycemia, and hypertension. These factors can affect gene expression through epigenetic modifications. Lysyl oxidase like 2 (LOXL2) is responsible for collagen and elastin cross-linking in the heart, and its dysregulation has been pathologically associated with increased fibrosis. Additionally, studies have shown that, LOXL2 expression can be regulated by DNA methylation and histone modification. However, there is a paucity of data on LOXL2 regulation and its role in CVD. As such, this review aims to gain insight into the mechanisms by which LOXL2 is regulated in physiological conditions, as well as determine the downstream effectors responsible for CVD development. View Full-Text
Keywords: Lysyl Oxidase-Like 2 (LOXL2); epigenetics; DNA methylation; fibrosis; cardiovascular disease (CVD) Lysyl Oxidase-Like 2 (LOXL2); epigenetics; DNA methylation; fibrosis; cardiovascular disease (CVD)
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Erasmus, M.; Samodien, E.; Lecour, S.; Cour, M.; Lorenzo, O.; Dludla, P.; Pheiffer, C.; Johnson, R. Linking LOXL2 to Cardiac Interstitial Fibrosis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 5913.

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