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Review

Extracellular ATP as an Inter-Kingdom Signaling Molecule: Release Mechanisms by Bacteria and Its Implication on the Host

by 1,2 and 1,2,*
1
Department for Visceral Surgery and Medicine, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, CH-3010 Bern, Switzerland
2
Department for BioMedical Research (DBMR), Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, CH-3008 Bern, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(15), 5590; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21155590
Received: 4 July 2020 / Revised: 29 July 2020 / Accepted: 1 August 2020 / Published: 4 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Immunology)
The purine adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) is not only a universal intracellular energy carrier but plays also an important role as extracellular signaling molecule. Purinergic signaling is involved in many physiological and pathological processes like coagulation, inflammation, or sepsis in mammals. ATP is well-known as a messenger for intercellular communications in multicellular organisms, but phylogenetically much older unicellular organisms like yeast or bacteria use ATP as an extracellular signaling molecule as well. However, the mechanisms of ATP secretion by bacteria and its extracellular implications still have to be elucidated. This review will provide an overview of the current knowledge about bacterial extracellular ATP (eATP) under homeostatic conditions and during growth. Possible secretion mechanisms of ATP by bacteria will be discussed and implications of bacterial ATP are shown, with a focus on bacteria–host interactions. View Full-Text
Keywords: bacterial ATP; bacteria-derived ATP; bacteria; extracellular ATP; ATP secretion; purinergic signaling; inflammation; sepsis bacterial ATP; bacteria-derived ATP; bacteria; extracellular ATP; ATP secretion; purinergic signaling; inflammation; sepsis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Spari, D.; Beldi, G. Extracellular ATP as an Inter-Kingdom Signaling Molecule: Release Mechanisms by Bacteria and Its Implication on the Host. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 5590. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21155590

AMA Style

Spari D, Beldi G. Extracellular ATP as an Inter-Kingdom Signaling Molecule: Release Mechanisms by Bacteria and Its Implication on the Host. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(15):5590. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21155590

Chicago/Turabian Style

Spari, Daniel, and Guido Beldi. 2020. "Extracellular ATP as an Inter-Kingdom Signaling Molecule: Release Mechanisms by Bacteria and Its Implication on the Host" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 15: 5590. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21155590

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