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Cancer Associated Endogenous Retroviruses: Ideal Immune Targets for Adenovirus-Based Immunotherapy

1
InProTher, Bioinnovation Institute, Copenhagen Bio Science Park, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark
2
Center for Medical Parasitology, Department of Immunology and Microbiology, University of Copenhagen, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(14), 4843; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21144843
Received: 18 June 2020 / Revised: 6 July 2020 / Accepted: 7 July 2020 / Published: 8 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adenovirus: Enduring Toolbox for Basic and Applied Research)
Cancer is a major challenge in our societies, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) about 1/6 deaths were cancer related in 2018 and it is considered the second leading cause of death globally. Immunotherapies have changed the paradigm of oncologic treatment for several cancers where the field had fallen short in providing competent therapies. Despite the improvement, broadly acting and highly effective therapies capable of eliminating or preventing human cancers with insufficient mutated antigens are still missing. Adenoviral vector-based vaccines are a successful tool in the treatment of various diseases including cancer; however, their success has been limited. In this review we discuss the potential of adenovirus as therapeutic tools and the current developments to use them against cancer. More specifically, we examine how to use them to target endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). ERVs, comprising 8% of the human genome, have been detected in several cancers, while they remain silent in healthy tissues. Their low immunogenicity together with their immunosuppressive capacity aid cancer to escape immunosurveillance. In that regard, virus-like-vaccine (VLV) technology, combining adenoviral vectors and virus-like-particles (VLPs), can be ideal to target ERVs and elicit B-cell responses, as well as CD8+ and CD4+ T-cells responses. View Full-Text
Keywords: adenovirus; endogenous retrovirus; immunotherapy; cancer; virus-like-particles; virus-like-vaccines; immunology; adenoviral vector; envelope adenovirus; endogenous retrovirus; immunotherapy; cancer; virus-like-particles; virus-like-vaccines; immunology; adenoviral vector; envelope
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vergara Bermejo, A.; Ragonnaud, E.; Daradoumis, J.; Holst, P. Cancer Associated Endogenous Retroviruses: Ideal Immune Targets for Adenovirus-Based Immunotherapy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 4843. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21144843

AMA Style

Vergara Bermejo A, Ragonnaud E, Daradoumis J, Holst P. Cancer Associated Endogenous Retroviruses: Ideal Immune Targets for Adenovirus-Based Immunotherapy. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(14):4843. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21144843

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vergara Bermejo, Amaia; Ragonnaud, Emeline; Daradoumis, Joana; Holst, Peter. 2020. "Cancer Associated Endogenous Retroviruses: Ideal Immune Targets for Adenovirus-Based Immunotherapy" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 21, no. 14: 4843. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21144843

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