Next Article in Journal
Withaferin-A Can Be Used to Modulate the Keratin Network of Intermediate Filaments in Human Epidermal Keratinocytes
Next Article in Special Issue
Cytokine-Mediated Dysregulation of Signaling Pathways in the Pathogenesis of Multiple Myeloma
Previous Article in Journal
Cannabis, the Endocannabinoid System and Immunity—the Journey from the Bedside to the Bench and Back
Previous Article in Special Issue
High Expression of Cannabinoid Receptor 2 on Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells and Multiple Myeloma Cells
Open AccessReview

Cytokines and Chemokines as Mediators of Prostate Cancer Metastasis

Julius L. Chambers Biomedical/Biotechnology Institute and Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences, North Carolina Central University, Durham, NC 27707, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(12), 4449; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21124449
Received: 10 June 2020 / Revised: 19 June 2020 / Accepted: 21 June 2020 / Published: 23 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytokines/Chemokines in Cancer Metastasis)
The consequences of prostate cancer metastasis remain severe, with huge impact on the mortality and overall quality of life of affected patients. Despite the convoluted interplay and cross talk between various cell types and secreted factors in the metastatic process, cytokine and chemokines, along with their receptors and signaling axis, constitute important factors that help drive the sequence of events that lead to metastasis of prostate cancer. These proteins are involved in extracellular matrix remodeling, epithelial-mesenchymal-transition, angiogenesis, tumor invasion, premetastatic niche creation, extravasation, re-establishment of tumor cells in secondary organs as well as the remodeling of the metastatic tumor microenvironment. This review presents an overview of the main cytokines/chemokines, including IL-6, CXCL12, TGFβ, CXCL8, VEGF, RANKL, CCL2, CX3CL1, IL-1, IL-7, CXCL1, and CXCL16, that exert modulatory roles in prostate cancer metastasis. We also provide extensive description of their aberrant expression patterns in both advanced disease states and metastatic sites, as well as their functional involvement in the various stages of the prostate cancer metastatic process. View Full-Text
Keywords: prostate cancer; metastasis; cytokines; chemokines prostate cancer; metastasis; cytokines; chemokines
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Adekoya, T.O.; Richardson, R.M. Cytokines and Chemokines as Mediators of Prostate Cancer Metastasis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 4449.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop