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Fe2+ Ions Alleviate the Symptom of Citrus Greening Disease

Plant Function Research Unit, Division of Plant and Microbial Sciences, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8605, Japan
Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8528, Japan
Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc., Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192, Japan
Environment and Energy Innovation Department, Frontier Research and Development Division, Aichi Steel Corporation, Wanowari, Arao-machi, Tokai, Aichi 476-8666, Japan
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(11), 4033;
Received: 16 April 2020 / Revised: 30 May 2020 / Accepted: 2 June 2020 / Published: 4 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Disease Resistance in Plants)
Citrus greening (CG) is among the most devastating citrus diseases worldwide. CG-infected trees exhibit interveinal chlorotic leaves due to iron (Fe) deficiency derived from CG; thus, Fe content is lower in infected leaves than in healthy leaves. In this study, we demonstrated that the foliar application of Fe2+ relieves the symptom of CG infection in citrus trees. We applied Fe2+ and citrate to the leaves of infected rough lemon plants. Following this treatment, a reduction in the number of yellow symptomatic leaves was observed, and their growth was restored. Using chlorophyll content as an index, we screened for effective Fe complexes and found that a high ratio of citrate to Fe2+ in the applied solution led to effects against CG in Shikuwasa trees. A high proportion of Fe2+ to total Fe was another key factor explaining the effectiveness of the solution in CG infection, indicating the importance of Fe2+ absorption into plant cells. We confirmed the proportion of Fe2+ to total Fe through the high correlation of reflectometry data via a triazine reaction and X-ray absorption fine structure analysis. These results demonstrate that the foliar application of a high-Fe2+ citrate solution can restore the growth of CG diseased trees. View Full-Text
Keywords: citrus greening; huanglongbing; iron nutrient; PCR; Ferroptosis citrus greening; huanglongbing; iron nutrient; PCR; Ferroptosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Inoue, H.; Yamashita-Muraki, S.; Fujiwara, K.; Honda, K.; Ono, H.; Nonaka, T.; Kato, Y.; Matsuyama, T.; Sugano, S.; Suzuki, M.; Masaoka, Y. Fe2+ Ions Alleviate the Symptom of Citrus Greening Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 4033.

AMA Style

Inoue H, Yamashita-Muraki S, Fujiwara K, Honda K, Ono H, Nonaka T, Kato Y, Matsuyama T, Sugano S, Suzuki M, Masaoka Y. Fe2+ Ions Alleviate the Symptom of Citrus Greening Disease. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(11):4033.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Inoue, Haruhiko, Sakiko Yamashita-Muraki, Kanako Fujiwara, Kayoko Honda, Hiroki Ono, Takamasa Nonaka, Yuichi Kato, Tomoya Matsuyama, Shoji Sugano, Motofumi Suzuki, and Yoshikuni Masaoka. 2020. "Fe2+ Ions Alleviate the Symptom of Citrus Greening Disease" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 11: 4033.

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