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Article

Fe2+ Ions Alleviate the Symptom of Citrus Greening Disease

1
Plant Function Research Unit, Division of Plant and Microbial Sciences, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8605, Japan
2
Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8528, Japan
3
Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc., Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192, Japan
4
Environment and Energy Innovation Department, Frontier Research and Development Division, Aichi Steel Corporation, Wanowari, Arao-machi, Tokai, Aichi 476-8666, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(11), 4033; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21114033
Received: 16 April 2020 / Revised: 30 May 2020 / Accepted: 2 June 2020 / Published: 4 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Disease Resistance in Plants)
Citrus greening (CG) is among the most devastating citrus diseases worldwide. CG-infected trees exhibit interveinal chlorotic leaves due to iron (Fe) deficiency derived from CG; thus, Fe content is lower in infected leaves than in healthy leaves. In this study, we demonstrated that the foliar application of Fe2+ relieves the symptom of CG infection in citrus trees. We applied Fe2+ and citrate to the leaves of infected rough lemon plants. Following this treatment, a reduction in the number of yellow symptomatic leaves was observed, and their growth was restored. Using chlorophyll content as an index, we screened for effective Fe complexes and found that a high ratio of citrate to Fe2+ in the applied solution led to effects against CG in Shikuwasa trees. A high proportion of Fe2+ to total Fe was another key factor explaining the effectiveness of the solution in CG infection, indicating the importance of Fe2+ absorption into plant cells. We confirmed the proportion of Fe2+ to total Fe through the high correlation of reflectometry data via a triazine reaction and X-ray absorption fine structure analysis. These results demonstrate that the foliar application of a high-Fe2+ citrate solution can restore the growth of CG diseased trees. View Full-Text
Keywords: citrus greening; huanglongbing; iron nutrient; PCR; Ferroptosis citrus greening; huanglongbing; iron nutrient; PCR; Ferroptosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Inoue, H.; Yamashita-Muraki, S.; Fujiwara, K.; Honda, K.; Ono, H.; Nonaka, T.; Kato, Y.; Matsuyama, T.; Sugano, S.; Suzuki, M.; Masaoka, Y. Fe2+ Ions Alleviate the Symptom of Citrus Greening Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 4033. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21114033

AMA Style

Inoue H, Yamashita-Muraki S, Fujiwara K, Honda K, Ono H, Nonaka T, Kato Y, Matsuyama T, Sugano S, Suzuki M, Masaoka Y. Fe2+ Ions Alleviate the Symptom of Citrus Greening Disease. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(11):4033. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21114033

Chicago/Turabian Style

Inoue, Haruhiko, Sakiko Yamashita-Muraki, Kanako Fujiwara, Kayoko Honda, Hiroki Ono, Takamasa Nonaka, Yuichi Kato, Tomoya Matsuyama, Shoji Sugano, Motofumi Suzuki, and Yoshikuni Masaoka. 2020. "Fe2+ Ions Alleviate the Symptom of Citrus Greening Disease" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 11: 4033. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21114033

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