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Host- and Microbiota-Derived Extracellular Vesicles, Immune Function, and Disease Development

1
Charles Perkins Centre, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
2
School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
3
The University of Sydney, Sydney Medical School Nepean, Penrith 2751, Australia
4
Vascular Immunology Unit, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010107
Received: 11 November 2019 / Revised: 14 December 2019 / Accepted: 19 December 2019 / Published: 22 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicles and Cell–Cell Communication)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are blebs of either plasma membrane or intracellular membranes carrying a cargo of proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids. EVs are produced by eukaryotic cells both under physiological and pathological conditions. Genetic and environmental factors (diet, stress, etc.) affecting EV cargo, regulating EV release, and consequences on immunity will be covered. EVs are found in virtually all body fluids such as plasma, saliva, amniotic fluid, and breast milk, suggesting key roles in immune development and function at different life stages from in utero to aging. These will be reviewed here. Under pathological conditions, plasma EV levels are increased and exacerbate immune activation and inflammatory reaction. Sources of EV, cells targeted, and consequences on immune function and disease development will be discussed. Both pathogenic and commensal bacteria release EV, which are classified as outer membrane vesicles when released by Gram-negative bacteria or as membrane vesicles when released by Gram-positive bacteria. Bacteria derived EVs can affect host immunity with pathogenic bacteria derived EVs having pro-inflammatory effects of host immune cells while probiotic derived EVs mostly shape the immune response towards tolerance. View Full-Text
Keywords: inflammation; immune function; diseases; gut microbiota derived extracellular vesicles; host derived extracellular vesicles inflammation; immune function; diseases; gut microbiota derived extracellular vesicles; host derived extracellular vesicles
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MDPI and ACS Style

Macia, L.; Nanan, R.; Hosseini-Beheshti, E.; Grau, G.E. Host- and Microbiota-Derived Extracellular Vesicles, Immune Function, and Disease Development. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 107.

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