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Open AccessReview

An Update on Interleukin-9: From Its Cellular Source and Signal Transduction to Its Role in Immunopathogenesis

Department of Transplant Immunology and Immunogenetics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 1100029, India
Zentrum für Infektiologie, Medizinische Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Universitätsklinikum Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 324, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(9), 2113;
Received: 31 March 2019 / Revised: 17 April 2019 / Accepted: 24 April 2019 / Published: 29 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Signaling: From Past to Future)
Interleukin-9 (IL-9) is a pleiotropic cytokine and was primarily studied in the context of T helper 2 (TH2)-associated immuno-pathological conditions such as asthma and parasitic infections. There was a paradigm shift in the biology of IL-9 after the recent discovery of TH9 cells, a new subtype of TH cells which secrete IL-9 in copious amounts. This has resulted in renewed interest in this cytokine, which was neglected since discovery because it was considered it to be just another TH2 cytokine. Recent studies have shown that it has multiple cellular sources and is critically involved in the immune-pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases and in guarding immune tolerance. In this review, we will discuss its discovery, gene organization, cellular sources, and signaling pathways. Especially, we will give an update on the recent development regarding its relevance in the immune pathogenesis of human diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: interleukin-9; inflammatory diseases; signal transduction interleukin-9; inflammatory diseases; signal transduction
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Chakraborty, S.; Kubatzky, K.F.; Mitra, D.K. An Update on Interleukin-9: From Its Cellular Source and Signal Transduction to Its Role in Immunopathogenesis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 2113.

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