Next Article in Journal
An In Silico Model for Predicting Drug-Induced Hepatotoxicity
Previous Article in Journal
Quantitative Phosphoproteomic and Physiological Analyses Provide Insights into the Formation of the Variegated Leaf in Catalpa fargesii
Previous Article in Special Issue
Transcription Factors in the Development and Function of Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(8), 1896; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20081896

Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells in Liver and Gut: From Current Knowledge to Future Perspectives

Institute of Experimental Immunology and Hepatology, Center for Experimental Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, D-20246 Hamburg, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 February 2019 / Revised: 10 April 2019 / Accepted: 12 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
  |  
PDF [1958 KB, uploaded 17 April 2019]
  |  

Abstract

Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) represent a heterogeneous population of recently discovered immune cells that mirror the functions of adaptive T lymphocytes. However, ILCs are devoid of specific antigen receptors and cellular activation depends on environmental cytokines, rendering them as early regulators of immune responses. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) respond to alarmins, such as interleukin-25 and -33 and shape Th2-associated immunity by expressing IL-5 and IL-13 in a GATA3-dependent manner. In addition, ILC2s express the epidermal growth factor-like molecule Amphiregulin thereby promoting regeneration of injured tissue during inflammation. The gut and liver confer nutrient metabolism and bidirectional exchange of products, known as the gut-liver axis. Accordingly, both organs are continuously exposed to a large variety of harmless antigens. This requires avoidance of immunity, which is established by a tolerogenic environment in the gut and liver. However, dysregulations within the one organ are assumed to influence vitality of the other and frequently promote chronic inflammatory settings with poor prognosis. Intensive research within the last years has revealed that ILC2s are involved in acute and chronic inflammatory settings of gut and liver. Here, we highlight the roles of ILC2s in intestinal and hepatic inflammation and discuss a regulatory potential. View Full-Text
Keywords: type 2 innate lymphoid cells; gut-liver axis; hepatitis; immune regulation type 2 innate lymphoid cells; gut-liver axis; hepatitis; immune regulation
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ochel, A.; Tiegs, G.; Neumann, K. Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells in Liver and Gut: From Current Knowledge to Future Perspectives. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 1896.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top