The cerebellum contains a circadian clock, generating internal temporal signals. The daily oscillations of cerebellar proteins were investigated in mice using a large-scale two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). Analysis of 2D-DIGE gels highlighted the rhythmic variation in the intensity of 27/588 protein spots (5%) over 24 h based on cosinor regression. Notably, the rhythmic expression of most abundant cerebellar proteins was clustered in two main phases (i.e., midday and midnight), leading to bimodal distribution. Only six proteins identified here to be rhythmic in the cerebellum are also known to oscillate in the suprachiasmatic nuclei, including two proteins involved in the synapse activity (Synapsin 2 [SYN2] and vesicle-fusing ATPase [NSF]), two others participating in carbohydrate metabolism (triosephosphate isomerase (TPI1] and alpha-enolase [ENO1]), Glutamine synthetase (GLUL), as well as Tubulin alpha (TUBA4A). Most oscillating cerebellar proteins were not previously identified in circadian proteomic analyses of any tissue. Strikingly, the daily accumulation of mitochondrial proteins was clustered to the mid-resting phase, as previously observed for distinct mitochondrial proteins in the liver. Moreover, a number of rhythmic proteins, such as SYN2, NSF and TPI1, were associated with non-rhythmic mRNAs, indicating widespread post-transcriptional control in cerebellar oscillations. Thus, this study highlights extensive rhythmic aspects of the cerebellar proteome.
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