Extracellular Vesicles and Carried miRNAs in the Progression of Renal Cell Carcinoma
Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, via Nizza 52, 10126 Turin, Italy
Molecular Biotechnology Centre, University of Turin, via Nizza 52, 10126 Turin, Italy
Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Health Sciences, University of Turin, via Nizza 52, 10126 Turin, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(8), 1832; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20081832
Received: 26 March 2019 / Revised: 10 April 2019 / Accepted: 11 April 2019 / Published: 13 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicles and Metastatic Niche)
The formation and maintenance of renal cell carcinomas (RCC) involve many cell types, such as cancer stem and differentiated cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts and immune cells. These all contribute to the creation of a favorable tumor microenvironment to promote tumor growth and metastasis. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are considered to be efficient messengers that facilitate the exchange of information within the different tumor cell types. Indeed, tumor EVs display features of their originating cells and force recipient cells towards a pro-tumorigenic phenotype. This review summarizes the recent knowledge related to the biological role of EVs, shed by renal tumor cells and renal cancer stem cells in different aspects of RCC progression, such as angiogenesis, immune escape and tumor growth. Moreover, a specific role for renal cancer stem cell derived EVs is described in the formation of the pre-metastatic niche. We also highlight the tumor EV cargo, especially the oncogenic miRNAs, which are involved in these processes. Finally, the circulating miRNAs appear to be a promising source of biomarkers in RCC.