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Metastatic Niches and the Modulatory Contribution of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Its Exosomes

1
Remodelative Processes and Cellular Niches Laboratory, Instituto de Medicina Traslacional e Ingeniería Biomédica (IMTIB)—CONICET—Instituto Universitario del Hospital Italiano—Hospital Italiano Buenos Aires (HIBA), C1199ACL Buenos Aires, Argentina
2
Instituto Carlos Chagas Fiocruz/PR, 81350-010 Curitiba, Brazil
3
INFIBIOC, Clinical Biochemistry Department, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry (FFyB), University of Buenos Aires (UBA), C1113AAD Buenos Aires, Argentina
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(8), 1946; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20081946
Received: 22 March 2019 / Revised: 12 April 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 20 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicles and Metastatic Niche)
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PDF [738 KB, uploaded 20 April 2019]
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Abstract

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent an interesting population due to their capacity to release a variety of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors, and due to their motile nature and homing ability. MSCs can be isolated from different sources, like adipose tissue or bone marrow, and have the capacity to differentiate, both in vivo and in vitro, into adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts, making them even more interesting in the regenerative medicine field. Tumor associated stroma has been recognized as a key element in tumor progression, necessary for the biological success of the tumor, and MSCs represent a functionally fundamental part of this associated stroma. Exosomes represent one of the dominant signaling pathways within the tumor microenvironment. Their biology raises high interest, with implications in different biological processes involved in cancer progression, such as the formation of the pre-metastatic niche. This is critical during the metastatic cascade, given that it is the formation of a permissive context that would allow metastatic tumor cells survival within the new environment. In this context, we explored the role of exosomes, particularly MSCs-derived exosomes as direct or indirect modulators. All this points out a possible new tool useful for designing better treatment and detection strategies for metastatic progression, including the management of chemoresistance. View Full-Text
Keywords: MSCs; exosomes; pre-metastatic niche; metastasis MSCs; exosomes; pre-metastatic niche; metastasis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Valenzuela Alvarez, M.; Gutierrez, L.M.; Correa, A.; Lazarowski, A.; Bolontrade, M.F. Metastatic Niches and the Modulatory Contribution of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Its Exosomes. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 1946.

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