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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(8), 1827; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20081827

Cell Reprogramming in Tumorigenesis and Its Therapeutic Implications for Breast Cancer

1
School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City 242, Taiwan
2
Department of Pathology, Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Changhua 500, Taiwan
3
National Institute of Cancer Research, National Health Research Institutes, Tainan 704, Taiwan;
4
Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
5
Department of Medical Research, Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Changhua 500, Taiwan
6
Graduate Institute of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
7
Department of Medical Research, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
8
Department of Biological Sciences, National Sun Yet-sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 February 2019 / Revised: 1 April 2019 / Accepted: 10 April 2019 / Published: 12 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Reprogramming, II)
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PDF [507 KB, uploaded 12 April 2019]
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Abstract

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women worldwide and can be categorized into several subtypes according to histopathological parameters or genomic signatures. Such heterogeneity of breast cancer can arise from the reactivation of mammary stem cells in situ during tumorigenesis. Moreover, different breast cancer subtypes exhibit varieties of cancer incidence, therapeutic response, and patient prognosis, suggesting that a specific therapeutic protocol is required for each breast cancer subtype. Recent studies using molecular and cellular assays identified a link between specific genetic/epigenetic alterations and distinct cells of origin of breast cancer subtypes. These alterations include oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, and cell-lineage determinants, which can induce cell reprogramming (dedifferentiation and transdifferentiation) among two lineage-committed mammary epithelial cells, namely basal and luminal cells. The interconversion of cell states through cell reprogramming into the intermediates of mammary stem cells can give rise to heterogeneous breast cancers that complicate effective therapies of breast cancer. A better understanding of mechanisms underlying cell reprogramming in breast cancer can help in not only elucidating tumorigenesis but also developing therapeutics for breast cancer. This review introduces recent findings on cancer gene-mediated cell reprogramming in breast cancer and discusses the therapeutic potential of targeting cell reprogramming. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast cancer; cell plasticity; cell reprogramming; lineage conversion; mammary stem cells breast cancer; cell plasticity; cell reprogramming; lineage conversion; mammary stem cells
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Chu, P.-Y.; Hou, M.-F.; Lai, J.-C.; Chen, L.-F.; Lin, C.-S. Cell Reprogramming in Tumorigenesis and Its Therapeutic Implications for Breast Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 1827.

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