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Open AccessReview

Effectiveness of Vitamin D Supplementation in the Management of Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review

Centre for Movement, Occupational and Rehabilitation Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford OX3 0BP, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(6), 1301;
Received: 5 January 2019 / Revised: 25 February 2019 / Accepted: 5 March 2019 / Published: 14 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products and Neuroprotection)
Objective: to examine the extent of effect vitamin D in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) on pathology and symptoms. Methods: A literature search was performed in November 2018 (CRD42018103615). Eligibility criteria: randomised control trials in English from 2012 to 2018; a clinical diagnosis of MS; interventions containing vitamin D supplementation (vitamin D3 or calcitriol) in disease activity compared to a control/placebo; improvement in: serum 25(OH)D, relapse rates, disability status by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores, cytokine profile, quality of life, mobility, T2 lesion load and new T2 or T1 Gd enhancing lesions, safety and adverse effects. Risk of bias was evaluated. Results: Ten studies were selected. The study size ranged from 40 to 94 people. All studies evaluated the use of vitamin D supplementation (ranging from 10 to 98,000 IU), comparing to a placebo or low dose vitamin D. The duration of the intervention ranged from 12 to 96 weeks. One trial found a significant effect on EDSS score, three demonstrated a significant change in serum cytokines level, one found benefits to current enhancing lesions and three studies evaluating the safety and tolerability of vitamin D reported no serious adverse events. Disease measures improved to a greater extent overall in those with lower baseline serum 25(OH)D levels. Conclusions: As shown in 3 out of 10 studies, improvement in disease measures may be more apparent in those with lower baseline vitamin D levels. View Full-Text
Keywords: Vitamin D; Multiple Sclerosis; symptom Vitamin D; Multiple Sclerosis; symptom
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Berezowska, M.; Coe, S.; Dawes, H. Effectiveness of Vitamin D Supplementation in the Management of Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 1301.

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