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The Contribution of the Immune System in Bone Metastasis Pathogenesis

State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China
Breast & Ovarian Cancer Program, Department of Oncology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(4), 999;
Received: 1 February 2019 / Revised: 18 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 25 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms in Cancer Metastasis)
Bone metastasis is associated with significant morbidity for cancer patients and results in a reduced quality of life. The bone marrow is a fertile soil containing a complex composition of immune cells that may actually provide an immune-privileged niche for disseminated tumor cells to colonize and proliferate. In this unique immune milieu, multiple immune cells including T cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and neutrophils are involved in the process of bone metastasis. In this review, we will discuss the crosstalk between immune cells in bone microenvironment and their involvement with cancer cell metastasis to the bone. Furthermore, we will highlight the anti-tumoral and pro-tumoral function of each immune cell type that contributes to bone metastasis. We will end with a discussion of current therapeutic strategies aimed at sensitizing immune cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone metastasis; immune system; immunotherapy bone metastasis; immune system; immunotherapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Xiang, L.; Gilkes, D.M. The Contribution of the Immune System in Bone Metastasis Pathogenesis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 999.

AMA Style

Xiang L, Gilkes DM. The Contribution of the Immune System in Bone Metastasis Pathogenesis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(4):999.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Xiang, Lisha, and Daniele M. Gilkes. 2019. "The Contribution of the Immune System in Bone Metastasis Pathogenesis" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20, no. 4: 999.

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