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Open AccessReview

The Contribution of the Immune System in Bone Metastasis Pathogenesis

1
State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China
2
Breast & Ovarian Cancer Program, Department of Oncology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA
3
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(4), 999; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20040999
Received: 1 February 2019 / Revised: 18 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 25 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms in Cancer Metastasis)
Bone metastasis is associated with significant morbidity for cancer patients and results in a reduced quality of life. The bone marrow is a fertile soil containing a complex composition of immune cells that may actually provide an immune-privileged niche for disseminated tumor cells to colonize and proliferate. In this unique immune milieu, multiple immune cells including T cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and neutrophils are involved in the process of bone metastasis. In this review, we will discuss the crosstalk between immune cells in bone microenvironment and their involvement with cancer cell metastasis to the bone. Furthermore, we will highlight the anti-tumoral and pro-tumoral function of each immune cell type that contributes to bone metastasis. We will end with a discussion of current therapeutic strategies aimed at sensitizing immune cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone metastasis; immune system; immunotherapy bone metastasis; immune system; immunotherapy
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Xiang, L.; Gilkes, D.M. The Contribution of the Immune System in Bone Metastasis Pathogenesis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 999.

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