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Niacin in the Central Nervous System: An Update of Biological Aspects and Clinical Applications

Department of Experimental Medicine, Tor Vergata University of Rome, Via Montpellier 1, 00133 Rome, Italy
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(4), 974; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20040974
Received: 30 January 2019 / Revised: 19 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 23 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Mechanism of B-Vitamins and Their Metabolites)
Niacin (also known as “vitamin B3” or “vitamin PP”) includes two vitamers (nicotinic acid and nicotinamide) giving rise to the coenzymatic forms nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). The two coenzymes are required for oxidative reactions crucial for energy production, but they are also substrates for enzymes involved in non-redox signaling pathways, thus regulating biological functions, including gene expression, cell cycle progression, DNA repair and cell death. In the central nervous system, vitamin B3 has long been recognized as a key mediator of neuronal development and survival. Here, we will overview available literature data on the neuroprotective role of niacin and its derivatives, especially focusing especially on its involvement in neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s diseases), as well as in other neuropathological conditions (ischemic and traumatic injuries, headache and psychiatric disorders). View Full-Text
Keywords: central nervous system; diet; NAD(P); neurodegenerative diseases; niacin; nicotinamide; nicotinic acid; vitamin B3 central nervous system; diet; NAD(P); neurodegenerative diseases; niacin; nicotinamide; nicotinic acid; vitamin B3
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Gasperi, V.; Sibilano, M.; Savini, I.; Catani, M.V. Niacin in the Central Nervous System: An Update of Biological Aspects and Clinical Applications. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 974.

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