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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(4), 797; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20040797

Positive Impact of Pulsed Electric Field on Lactic Acid Removal, Demineralization and Membrane Scaling during Acid Whey Electrodialysis

1
Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods (INAF), Dairy Research Center (STELA) and Department of Food Sciences, Université Laval, Québec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
2
Laboratoire de Transformation Alimentaire et Procédés ÉlectroMembranaires (LTAPEM, Laboratory of Food Processing and ElectroMembrane Processes), Université Laval, Québec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
3
Parmalat, Victoriaville, Québec, QC G6P 9V7, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 January 2019 / Revised: 30 January 2019 / Accepted: 31 January 2019 / Published: 13 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ion and Molecule Transport in Membrane Systems)
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Abstract

The drying of acid whey is hindered by its high mineral and organic acid contents, and their removal is performed industrially through expensive and environmentally impacting serial processes. Previous works demonstrated the ability to remove these elements by electrodialysis alone but with a major concern—membrane scaling. In this study, two conditions of pulsed electric field (PEF) were tested and compared to conventional DC current condition to evaluate the potential of PEF to mitigate membrane scaling and to affect lactic acid and salt removals. The application of a PEF 25 s/25 s pulse/pause combination at an initial under-limiting current density allowed for decreasing the amount of scaling, the final system electrical resistance by 32%, and the relative energy consumption up to 33%. The use of pulsed current also enabled better lactic acid removal than the DC condition by 10% and 16% for PEF 50 s/10 s and 25 s/25 s, respectively. These results would be due to two mechanisms: (1) the mitigation of concentration polarization phenomenon and (2) the rinsing of the membranes during the pause periods. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first time that PEF current conditions were used on acid whey to both demineralize and deacidify it. View Full-Text
Keywords: acid whey; electrodialysis; pulsed electric field; demineralization; scaling; lactic acid removal acid whey; electrodialysis; pulsed electric field; demineralization; scaling; lactic acid removal
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Dufton, G.; Mikhaylin, S.; Gaaloul, S.; Bazinet, L. Positive Impact of Pulsed Electric Field on Lactic Acid Removal, Demineralization and Membrane Scaling during Acid Whey Electrodialysis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 797.

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