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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(3), 749; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20030749

Hypoxia Induced ER Stress Response as an Adaptive Mechanism in Cancer

1
Department of Pharmacology, JSS College of Pharmacy, Ooty 643001, India
2
Centre for Cancer Biology, University of South Australia and SA Patholology, Adelaide 5001, Australia
3
Laboratory of NF-κB Signaling, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (IMCB), Proteos 138673, Singapore
4
Cologne Excellence Cluster on Cellular Stress Responses in Aging-Associated Diseases (CECAD), University of Cologne, 50931 Cologne, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 January 2019 / Revised: 23 January 2019 / Accepted: 29 January 2019 / Published: 11 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Unfolded Protein Response)
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Abstract

It is evident that regions within tumors are deprived of oxygen, which makes the microenvironment hypoxic. Cancer cells experiencing hypoxia undergo metabolic alterations and cytoprotective adaptive mechanisms to survive such stringent conditions. While such mechanisms provide potential therapeutic targets, the mechanisms by which hypoxia regulates adaptive responses—such as ER stress response, unfolded protein response (UPR), anti-oxidative responses, and autophagy—remain elusive. In this review, we summarize the complex interplay between hypoxia and the ER stress signaling pathways that are activated in the hypoxic microenvironment of the tumors. View Full-Text
Keywords: hypoxia; endoplasmic reticulum; UPR; cancer; HIF-1; stress-response hypoxia; endoplasmic reticulum; UPR; cancer; HIF-1; stress-response
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Chipurupalli, S.; Kannan, E.; Tergaonkar, V.; D’Andrea, R.; Robinson, N. Hypoxia Induced ER Stress Response as an Adaptive Mechanism in Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 749.

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