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Hypoxia Induced ER Stress Response as an Adaptive Mechanism in Cancer
Review

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Unfolded Protein Response in Breast Cancer: The Balance between Apoptosis and Autophagy and Its Role in Drug Resistance

1
Laboratory of Pre-Clinical and Translational Research, IRCCS, Referral Cancer Center of Basilicata, 85028 Rionero in Vulture, Italy
2
Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Napoli Federico II, 80131 Naples, Italy
3
Medical Oncology Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Foggia, 71100 Foggia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(4), 857; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20040857
Received: 14 January 2019 / Revised: 12 February 2019 / Accepted: 15 February 2019 / Published: 16 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Unfolded Protein Response)
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a stress response activated by the accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and its uncontrolled activation is mechanistically responsible for several human pathologies, including metabolic, neurodegenerative, and inflammatory diseases, and cancer. Indeed, ER stress and the downstream UPR activation lead to changes in the levels and activities of key regulators of cell survival and autophagy and this is physiologically finalized to restore metabolic homeostasis with the integration of pro-death or/and pro-survival signals. By contrast, the chronic activation of UPR in cancer cells is widely considered a mechanism of tumor progression. In this review, we focus on the relationship between ER stress, apoptosis, and autophagy in human breast cancer and the interplay between the activation of UPR and resistance to anticancer therapies with the aim to disclose novel therapeutic scenarios. The hypothesis that autophagy and UPR may provide novel molecular targets in human malignancies is discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: endoplasmic reticulum stress; unfolded protein response; breast cancer; apoptosis; autophagy; drug resistance; hormone therapy endoplasmic reticulum stress; unfolded protein response; breast cancer; apoptosis; autophagy; drug resistance; hormone therapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sisinni, L.; Pietrafesa, M.; Lepore, S.; Maddalena, F.; Condelli, V.; Esposito, F.; Landriscina, M. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Unfolded Protein Response in Breast Cancer: The Balance between Apoptosis and Autophagy and Its Role in Drug Resistance. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 857. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20040857

AMA Style

Sisinni L, Pietrafesa M, Lepore S, Maddalena F, Condelli V, Esposito F, Landriscina M. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Unfolded Protein Response in Breast Cancer: The Balance between Apoptosis and Autophagy and Its Role in Drug Resistance. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(4):857. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20040857

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sisinni, Lorenza, Michele Pietrafesa, Silvia Lepore, Francesca Maddalena, Valentina Condelli, Franca Esposito, and Matteo Landriscina. 2019. "Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Unfolded Protein Response in Breast Cancer: The Balance between Apoptosis and Autophagy and Its Role in Drug Resistance" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20, no. 4: 857. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20040857

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