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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(3), 747;

Mitochondrial Genomes Provide Insights into the Phylogeny of Culicomorpha (Insecta: Diptera)

Key Lab of Integrated Crop Pest Management of Shandong Province, College of Plant Health and Medicine, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109, China
Department of Entomology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
College of Plant Protection, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding 071001, China
California State Collection of Arthropods, California Department of Food and Agriculture, 3294 Meadowview Road, Sacramento, CA 95832, USA
Saigusa Institute of Insect Natural History, Clover Heights Ropponmatsu 402, 7-1, Baikoen 2-chome, Fukuoka-shi 810-0035, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: 26 December 2018 / Revised: 31 January 2019 / Accepted: 7 February 2019 / Published: 11 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Genetics and Genomics)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2670 KB, uploaded 11 February 2019]   |  


Culicomorpha is a monophyletic group containing most bloodsucking lower dipterans, including many important vectors of pathogens. However, the higher-level phylogenetic relationships within Culicomorpha are largely unresolved, with multiple competing hypotheses based on molecular sequence data. Here we sequenced four nearly complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes representing four culicomorph families, and combined these new data with published mt genomes to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of all eight extant culicomorph families. We estimated phylogenies using four datasets and three methods. We also used four-cluster likelihood mapping to study potential incongruent topologies supported by the different datasets and phylogenetic questions generated by the previous studies. The results showed that a clade containing Ceratopogonidae, Thaumaleidae and Simuliidae was the sister group to all other Culicomorpha; in another clade, the Dixidae was basal to the remaining four families; Chaoboridae, Corethrellidae and Culicidae formed a monophyletic group and the Chironomidae was the sister group to this clade; Culicidae and Corethrellidae were sister groups in all trees. Our study provides novel mt genome data in Culicomorpha for three new family representatives, and the resulting mt phylogenomic analysis helps to resolve the phylogeny and taxonomy of Culicomorpha. View Full-Text
Keywords: Culicomorpha; diptera; phylogeny; mitochondrial genome Culicomorpha; diptera; phylogeny; mitochondrial genome

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Zhang, X.; Kang, Z.; Ding, S.; Wang, Y.; Borkent, C.; Saigusa, T.; Yang, D. Mitochondrial Genomes Provide Insights into the Phylogeny of Culicomorpha (Insecta: Diptera). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 747.

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