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Open AccessArticle

Plasma Extracellular Vesicles in Children with OSA Disrupt Blood–Brain Barrier Integrity and Endothelial Cell Wound Healing In Vitro

Child Health Research Institute, Department of Child Health, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65201, USA
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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(24), 6233; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20246233
Received: 9 November 2019 / Revised: 8 December 2019 / Accepted: 8 December 2019 / Published: 10 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (P-OSA) is associated with neurocognitive deficits and endothelial dysfunction, suggesting the possibility that disruption of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) may underlie these morbidities. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), which include exosomes, are small particles involved in cell–cell communications via different mechanisms and could play a role in OSA-associated end-organ injury. To examine the roles of EVs in BBB dysfunction, we recruited three groups of children: (a) absence of OSA or cognitive deficits (CL, n = 6), (b) OSA but no evidence of cognitive deficits (OSA-NC(−), n = 12), and (c) OSA with evidence of neurocognitive deficits (OSA-NC(+), n = 12). All children were age-, gender-, ethnicity-, and BMI-z-score-matched, and those with OSA were also apnea–hypopnea index (AHI)-matched. Plasma EVs were characterized, quantified, and applied on multiple endothelial cell types (HCAEC, HIAEC, human HMVEC-D, HMVEC-C, HMVEC-L, and hCMEC/D3) while measuring monolayer barrier integrity and wound-healing responses. EVs from OSA children induced significant declines in hCMEC/D3 transendothelial impedance compared to CL (p < 0.001), and such changes were greater in NC(+) compared to NC(−) (p < 0.01). The effects of EVs from each group on wound healing for HCAEC, HIAEC, HMVED-d, and hCMEC/D3 cells were similar, but exhibited significant differences across the three groups, with evidence of disrupted wound healing in P-OSA. However, wound healing in HMVEC-C was only affected by NC(+) (p < 0.01 vs. NC(−) or controls (CO). Furthermore, no significant differences emerged in HMVEC-L cell wound healing across all three groups. We conclude that circulating plasma EVs in P-OSA disrupt the integrity of the BBB and exert adverse effects on endothelial wound healing, particularly among OSA-NC(+) children, while also exhibiting endothelial cell type selectivity. Thus, circulating EVs cargo may play important roles in the emergence of end-organ morbidity in pediatric OSA. View Full-Text
Keywords: pediatric OSA; extracellular vesicles (EVs), exosomes; neurocognitive deficits; wound healing; hCMEC/D3 cells; electric cell–substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) pediatric OSA; extracellular vesicles (EVs), exosomes; neurocognitive deficits; wound healing; hCMEC/D3 cells; electric cell–substrate impedance sensing (ECIS)
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Khalyfa, A.; Gozal, D.; Kheirandish-Gozal, L. Plasma Extracellular Vesicles in Children with OSA Disrupt Blood–Brain Barrier Integrity and Endothelial Cell Wound Healing In Vitro. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 6233.

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