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Open AccessArticle

Differential Regulation of Anthocyanin Synthesis in Apple Peel under Different Sunlight Intensities

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas/Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Apple, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(23), 6060;
Received: 9 November 2019 / Revised: 26 November 2019 / Accepted: 29 November 2019 / Published: 1 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Sunlight radiation is a main environmental factor which affects anthocyanin synthesis. To clarify the regulatory mechanism of sunlight on the synthesis of anthocyanin in apple peel, bagged apples were exposed to diverse intensities of sunlight through different shading treatments. Under an increased solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light intensity, the concentration of anthocyanin in apple peels was consistent with the Michaelis–Menten equation. Under lower sunlight intensities, diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI, an inhibitor of plasma membrane NAD(P)H oxidase) treatment increased both the concentration of cyanidin-3-glycoside and the activity of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR). However, under higher sunlight intensities, DPI treatment decreased the concentrations of cyanidin-3-glycoside and quercetin-3-glycoside, as well as the activities of DFR and UDP-glycose: flavonoid 3-O-glycosyltransferase (UFGT). These results indicate that, under low sunlight intensity, anthocyanin synthesis in apple peel was limited by the supply of the substrate cyanidin, which was regulated by the DFR activity. Nevertheless, after exposure to high sunlight intensity, the anthocyanin produced in the apple peel was dependent on UFGT activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: anthocyanin synthesis; sunlight; UV-B; DFR; UFGT; apple anthocyanin synthesis; sunlight; UV-B; DFR; UFGT; apple
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Chen, W.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, G.; Li, P.; Ma, F. Differential Regulation of Anthocyanin Synthesis in Apple Peel under Different Sunlight Intensities. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 6060.

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