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Interplay between MicroRNAs and Oxidative Stress in Neurodegenerative Diseases

1
Institute of Biotechnology, HiLIFE, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
2
Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, NASU, Kyiv 03143, Ukraine
3
Department of Brain Biochemistry, Maj Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-343 Krakow, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(23), 6055; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20236055
Received: 28 October 2019 / Revised: 23 November 2019 / Accepted: 28 November 2019 / Published: 30 November 2019
MicroRNAs are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, crucial for neuronal differentiation, survival, and activity. Age-related dysregulation of microRNA biogenesis increases neuronal vulnerability to cellular stress and may contribute to the development and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. All major neurodegenerative disorders are also associated with oxidative stress, which is widely recognized as a potential target for protective therapies. Albeit often considered separately, microRNA networks and oxidative stress are inextricably entwined in neurodegenerative processes. Oxidative stress affects expression levels of multiple microRNAs and, conversely, microRNAs regulate many genes involved in an oxidative stress response. Both oxidative stress and microRNA regulatory networks also influence other processes linked to neurodegeneration, such as mitochondrial dysfunction, deregulation of proteostasis, and increased neuroinflammation, which ultimately lead to neuronal death. Modulating the levels of a relatively small number of microRNAs may therefore alleviate pathological oxidative damage and have neuroprotective activity. Here, we review the role of individual microRNAs in oxidative stress and related pathways in four neurodegenerative conditions: Alzheimer’s (AD), Parkinson’s (PD), Huntington’s (HD) disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We also discuss the problems associated with the use of oversimplified cellular models and highlight perspectives of studying microRNA regulation and oxidative stress in human stem cell-derived neurons. View Full-Text
Keywords: microRNA; oxidative stress; ROS; translation regulation; neurodegeneration; Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease; Huntington’s disease; ALS microRNA; oxidative stress; ROS; translation regulation; neurodegeneration; Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease; Huntington’s disease; ALS
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Konovalova, J.; Gerasymchuk, D.; Parkkinen, I.; Chmielarz, P.; Domanskyi, A. Interplay between MicroRNAs and Oxidative Stress in Neurodegenerative Diseases. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 6055.

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