Next Article in Journal
Evaluation of the Reactivity and Receptor Competition of HLA-G Isoforms toward Available Antibodies: Implications of Structural Characteristics of HLA-G Isoforms
Next Article in Special Issue
Extracellular Vesicles and Epigenetic Modifications Are Hallmarks of Melanoma Progression
Previous Article in Journal
Identification and Characterization of HAESA-Like Genes Involved in the Fruitlet Abscission in Litchi
Previous Article in Special Issue
p63 Is a Promising Marker in the Diagnosis of Unusual Skin Cancer
Open AccessReview

Role of Nicotinamide in Genomic Stability and Skin Cancer Chemoprevention

1
First Dermatology Clinic, IDI-IRCCS, via dei Monti di Creta 104, 00167 Rome, Italy
2
Dermatologic Unit, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Viale Oxford 81, 00133 Rome, Italy
3
Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via Montpellier, 1, 00133 Rome, Italy
4
Biochemistry Laboratory, IDI-IRCCS, 00167 Rome, Italy
5
Clinical Epidemiology Unit, IDI-IRCCS, via dei Monti di Creta 104, 00167 Rome, Italy
6
Laboratory of Molecular and Cell Biology, IDI-IRCCS, via dei Monti di Creta 104, 00167 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(23), 5946; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20235946
Received: 12 October 2019 / Revised: 16 November 2019 / Accepted: 23 November 2019 / Published: 26 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Skin Cancer: From Pathophysiology to Novel Therapeutic Approaches)
Nicotinamide (NAM) is an amide form of vitamin B3 and the precursor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), an essential co-enzyme of redox reactions for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and for other metabolic processes. As NAD+ status is critical in maintaining cellular energy, vitamin B3 deficiency mainly affects tissues that need high cellular energy causing pellagra and skin sun sensitivity. In animal models, NAD+ deficiency leads to UV sensitivity of the skin, impairs DNA damage response, and increases genomic instability and cancer incidence. Furthermore, NAD+ depletion is associated with human skin aging and cancer. NAM prevents the UV-induced ATP depletion boosting cellular energy and enhances DNA repair activity in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, NAM reduces skin cancer incidence and prevents the immune-suppressive effects of UV in mice. Thus, NAM is involved in the maintenance of genomic stability and may have beneficial effects against skin aging changes and tumor development. Clinical studies showed that topical use of NAM reduces cutaneous aging. Furthermore, oral NAM administration reduces the level of UV-mediated immunosuppression and lowers the rate of non-melanoma skin cancers in high-risk patients. Therefore, NAM replenishment strategy may be a promising approach for skin cancer chemoprevention. View Full-Text
Keywords: keratinocytes; non-melanoma skin cancers; skin aging; nicotinamide keratinocytes; non-melanoma skin cancers; skin aging; nicotinamide
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Fania, L.; Mazzanti, C.; Campione, E.; Candi, E.; Abeni, D.; Dellambra, E. Role of Nicotinamide in Genomic Stability and Skin Cancer Chemoprevention. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 5946.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop