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Open AccessArticle

Waste Autochthonous Tuscan Olive Leaves (Olea europaea var. Olivastra seggianese) as Antioxidant Source for Biomedicine

1
Cardiovascular Research Laboratory, Department of Surgical, Medical and Molecular Pathology and Critical Care Medicine, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy
2
Doctoral School in Life Sciences, University of Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy
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Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, University of Pisa, 56122 Pisa, Italy
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Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali (INSTM), 50121 Florence, Italy
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Department of Pharmacy, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy
6
Interdepartmental Research Center “Nutraceuticals and Food for Health”, University of Pisa, 56100 Pisa, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(23), 5918; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20235918
Received: 26 September 2019 / Revised: 17 November 2019 / Accepted: 21 November 2019 / Published: 25 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biopolymer Composites 2019)
Olive leaf extract (OLE) can be obtained as biowaste and is extensively used a food supplement and an over-the-counter drug for its beneficial effects. New studies have investigated OLE concerning the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of vascular disease. This in vitro study aims to evaluate if OLE extracted from the Tuscan Olea europaea protects endothelial cells against oxidative stress generated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Methods: OLE total polyphenols (TPs) were characterized by the Folin–Ciocalteu method. Endothelial cells were grown in conventional cultures (i.e., two-dimensional, 2D) and on a biomaterial scaffold (i.e., three-dimensional, 3D) fabricated via electrospinning. Cell viability and ROS measurement after H2O2 insults were performed. Results: OLE TP content was 23.29 mg GAE/g, and oleuropein was the principal compound. The dose-dependent viability curve highlighted the absence of significant cytotoxic effects at OLE concentrations below 250 µg/mL TPs. By using OLE preconditioning at 100 µg/mL, cell viability decrease was observed, being in 3D lower than in the 2D model. OLE was protective against ROS in both models. Conclusions: OLE represents a high-value antioxidant source obtained by biowaste that is interesting for biomedical products. Using a 3D scaffold could be the best predictive model to mimic the physiological conditions of vascular tissue reaction. View Full-Text
Keywords: olive leaf extract (OLE); polyphenol; endothelial cells; oxidative stress; in vitro model; scaffold; tissue engineering; biowaste; pruning; poly(vinylidene fluoride tri-fluoroethylene) olive leaf extract (OLE); polyphenol; endothelial cells; oxidative stress; in vitro model; scaffold; tissue engineering; biowaste; pruning; poly(vinylidene fluoride tri-fluoroethylene)
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MDPI and ACS Style

De la Ossa, J.G.; Felice, F.; Azimi, B.; Esposito Salsano, J.; Digiacomo, M.; Macchia, M.; Danti, S.; Di Stefano, R. Waste Autochthonous Tuscan Olive Leaves (Olea europaea var. Olivastra seggianese) as Antioxidant Source for Biomedicine. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 5918.

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