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Open AccessArticle

Short-Term Microgravity Influences Cell Adhesion in Human Breast Cancer Cells

1
Clinic for Plastic, Aesthetic and Hand Surgery, Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany
2
Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
3
Department of Ophthalmology, Aarhus University Hospital, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark
4
Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Department of Gravitational Biology, German Aerospace Center, 51147 Cologne, Germany
5
Gravitational Biology and Translational Regenerative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Mechanical Engineering, Otto von Guericke University, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(22), 5730; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20225730
Received: 11 October 2019 / Revised: 10 November 2019 / Accepted: 12 November 2019 / Published: 15 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microgravity and Cell Adherence)
With the commercialization of spaceflight and the exploration of space, it is important to understand the changes occurring in human cells exposed to real microgravity (r-µg) conditions. We examined the influence of r-µg, simulated microgravity (s-µg, incubator random positioning machine (iRPM)), hypergravity (hyper-g), and vibration (VIB) on triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells (MDA-MB-231 cell line) with the aim to study early changes in the gene expression of factors associated with cell adhesion, apoptosis, nuclear factor “kappa-light-chain-enhancer” of activated B-cells (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. We had the opportunity to attend a parabolic flight (PF) mission and to study changes in RNA transcription in the MDA-MB cells exposed to PF maneuvers (29th Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) PF campaign). PF maneuvers induced an early up-regulation of ICAM1, CD44 and ERK1 mRNAs after the first parabola (P1) and a delayed upregulation of NFKB1, NFKBIA, NFKBIB, and FAK1 after the last parabola (P31). ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and CD44 protein levels were elevated, whereas the NF-κB subunit p-65 and annexin-A2 protein levels were reduced after the 31st parabola (P31). The PRKCA, RAF1, BAX mRNA were not changed and cleaved caspase-3 was not detectable in MDA-MB-231 cells exposed to PF maneuvers. Hyper-g-exposure of the cells elevated the expression of CD44 and NFKBIA mRNAs, iRPM-exposure downregulated ANXA2 and BAX, whereas VIB did not affect the TNBC cells. The early changes in ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 and the rapid decrease in the NF-κB subunit p-65 might be considered as fast-reacting, gravity-regulated and cell-protective mechanisms of TNBC cells exposed to altered gravity conditions. This data suggest a key role for the detected gravity-signaling elements in three-dimensional growth and metastasis. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast cancer cells; microgravity; hypergravity; cell adhesion; apoptosis; NF-κB breast cancer cells; microgravity; hypergravity; cell adhesion; apoptosis; NF-κB
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nassef, M.Z.; Kopp, S.; Melnik, D.; Corydon, T.J.; Sahana, J.; Krüger, M.; Wehland, M.; Bauer, T.J.; Liemersdorf, C.; Hemmersbach, R.; Infanger, M.; Grimm, D. Short-Term Microgravity Influences Cell Adhesion in Human Breast Cancer Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 5730. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20225730

AMA Style

Nassef MZ, Kopp S, Melnik D, Corydon TJ, Sahana J, Krüger M, Wehland M, Bauer TJ, Liemersdorf C, Hemmersbach R, Infanger M, Grimm D. Short-Term Microgravity Influences Cell Adhesion in Human Breast Cancer Cells. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(22):5730. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20225730

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nassef, Mohamed Z.; Kopp, Sascha; Melnik, Daniela; Corydon, Thomas J.; Sahana, Jayashree; Krüger, Marcus; Wehland, Markus; Bauer, Thomas J.; Liemersdorf, Christian; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Infanger, Manfred; Grimm, Daniela. 2019. "Short-Term Microgravity Influences Cell Adhesion in Human Breast Cancer Cells" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 20, no. 22: 5730. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20225730

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