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Open AccessArticle

Effects of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) and Its Analogues on the Physiological Behaviors and Hormone Content of Tetrahymena pyriformis

1
Department Genetics, Cell and Immunobiology, Semmelweis University, Nagyvárad tér 4., 1089 Budapest, Hungary
2
Research Group of Peptide Chemistry, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Eötvös Loránd University, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A, 1117 Budapest, Hungary
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(22), 5711; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20225711
Received: 5 October 2019 / Revised: 11 November 2019 / Accepted: 12 November 2019 / Published: 14 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor in Human Diseases)
The unicellular Tetrahymena distinguishes structure-related vertebrate hormones by its chemosensory reactions. In the present work, the selectivity of hormone receptors was evaluated by analyzing the effects of various gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs (GnRH-I, GnRH-III) as well as truncated (Ac-SHDWKPG-NH2) and dimer derivatives ([GnRH-III(C)]2 and [GnRH-III(CGFLG)]2) of GnRH-III on (i) locomotory behaviors, (ii) cell proliferation, and (iii) intracellular hormone contents of Tetrahymena pyriformis. The migration, intracellular hormone content, and proliferation of Tetrahymena were investigated by microscope-assisted tracking analysis, flow cytometry, and a CASY TT cell counter, respectively. Depending on the length of linker sequence between the two GnRH-III monomers, the GnRH-III dimers had the opposite effect on Tetrahymena migration. [GnRH-III(CGFLG)]2 dimer had a slow, serpentine-like movement, while [GnRH-III(C)]2 dimer had a rather linear swimming pattern. All GnRH-III derivatives significantly induced cell growth after 6 h incubation. Endogenous histamine content was uniformly enhanced by Ac-SHDWKPG-NH2 and GnRH-III dimers, while some differences between the hormonal activities of GnRHs were manifested in their effects on intracellular levels of serotonin and endorphin. The GnRH peptides could directly affect Tetrahymena migration and proliferation in a structure-dependent manner, and they could indirectly regulate these reactions by paracrine/autocrine mechanisms. Present results support the theory that recognition ability and selectivity of mammalian hormone receptors can be deduced from a phylogenetically ancient level like the unicellular Tetrahymena. View Full-Text
Keywords: GnRH-III; Tetrahymena; protozoan hormone; chemotaxis; chemokinesis; tracking analysis; cell proliferation GnRH-III; Tetrahymena; protozoan hormone; chemotaxis; chemokinesis; tracking analysis; cell proliferation
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Lajkó, E.; Pállinger, É.; Kovács, Z.; Szabó, I.; Kőhidai, L. Effects of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) and Its Analogues on the Physiological Behaviors and Hormone Content of Tetrahymena pyriformis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 5711.

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