Neuroimmunology: What Role for Autoimmunity, Neuroinflammation, and Small Fiber Neuropathy in Fibromyalgia, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, and Adverse Events after Human Papillomavirus Vaccination?
Laboratory of the Mosaic of Autoimmunity, Saint Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg 199034, Russian Federation
Saint Petersburg Research Institute of Phthisiopulmonology; Saint-Petersburg 191036, Russian Federation
Zabludowicz Center for Autoimmune Diseases, Sheba Medical Center, affiliated to Tel-Aviv University School of Medicine, Tel-Hashomer 52621, Israel
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5164; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205164
Received: 22 July 2019 / Revised: 26 September 2019 / Accepted: 16 October 2019 / Published: 18 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Sensitivity Illnesses: Mechanisms and Molecular Signatures)
Fibromyalgia is a disorder characterized by chronic widespread pain and non-pain symptoms, such as fatigue, dysautonomia, and cognitive and sleep disturbances. Its pathogenesis and treatment continue to be the subject of debate. We highlight the role of three mechanisms—autoimmunity, neuroinflammation, and small fiber neuropathy—in the pathogenesis of the disease. These mechanisms are shown to be closely interlinked (also on a molecular level), and the review considers the implementation of this relationship in the search for therapeutic options. We also pay attention to chronic fatigue syndrome, which overlaps with fibromyalgia, and propose a concept of “autoimmune hypothalamopathy” for its pathogenesis. Finally, we analyze the molecular mechanisms underlying the neuroinflammatory background in the development of adverse events following HPV vaccination and suggesting neuroinflammation, which could exacerbate the development of symptoms following HPV vaccination (though this is hotly debated), as a model for fibromyalgia pathogenesis.