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Open AccessReview

Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury Revisited: An Overview of the Latest Pharmacological Strategies

1
Marília Medical School, 17519–030 Marília, Brazil
2
Department of Anatomic Pathology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas, 13083–970 Campinas, Brazil
3
Department of Surgery & Anatomy, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, 14049–900 Ribeirão Preto, Brazil
4
Department of Gastroenterology, São Paulo Medical School, University of São Paulo, 01246-903 São Paulo, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5034; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205034
Received: 12 September 2019 / Revised: 3 October 2019 / Accepted: 8 October 2019 / Published: 11 October 2019
Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) permeates a variety of diseases and is a ubiquitous concern in every transplantation proceeding, from whole organs to modest grafts. Given its significance, efforts to evade the damaging effects of both ischemia and reperfusion are abundant in the literature and they consist of several strategies, such as applying pre-ischemic conditioning protocols, improving protection from preservation solutions, thus providing extended cold ischemia time and so on. In this review, we describe many of the latest pharmacological approaches that have been proven effective against IRI, while also revisiting well-established concepts and presenting recent pathophysiological findings in this ever-expanding field. A plethora of promising protocols has emerged in the last few years. They have been showing exciting results regarding protection against IRI by employing drugs that engage several strategies, such as modulating cell-surviving pathways, evading oxidative damage, physically protecting cell membrane integrity, and enhancing cell energetics. View Full-Text
Keywords: ischemia/reperfusion injury; pro-survival pathways; mitochondria; reactive oxygen species; inflammation; RISK pathway; SAFE pathway; cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate/Protein Kinase G pathway ischemia/reperfusion injury; pro-survival pathways; mitochondria; reactive oxygen species; inflammation; RISK pathway; SAFE pathway; cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate/Protein Kinase G pathway
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MDPI and ACS Style

Soares, R.O.S.; Losada, D.M.; Jordani, M.C.; Évora, P.; Castro-e-Silva, O. Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury Revisited: An Overview of the Latest Pharmacological Strategies. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 5034.

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