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Open AccessArticle

Comparing the Osteogenic Potentials and Bone Regeneration Capacities of Bone Marrow and Dental Pulp Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Rabbit Calvarial Bone Defect Model

1
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 110, Taiwan
2
School of Dentistry, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan
3
School of Oral Hygiene, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan
4
Division of Prosthodontics, Department of Dentistry, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 110, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Authors contributed equally to this manuscript.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5015; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205015
Received: 5 September 2019 / Revised: 2 October 2019 / Accepted: 9 October 2019 / Published: 10 October 2019
The bone regeneration efficiency of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and dental pulp mesenchymal stem cells (DPSCs) combined with xenografts in the craniofacial region remains unclear. Accordingly, this study commenced by comparing the cell morphology, cell proliferation, trilineage differentiation, mineral synthesis, and osteogenic gene expression of BMSCs and DPSCs in vitro. Four experimental groups (empty control, Bio-Oss only, Bio-Oss+BMSCs, and Bio-Oss+DPSCs) were then designed and implanted in rabbit calvarial defects. The BMSCs and DPSCs showed a similar morphology, proliferative ability, surface marker profile, and trilineage-differentiation potential in vitro. However, the BMSCs exhibited a higher mineral deposition and expression levels of osteogenic marker genes, including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), runt related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), and osteocalcin (OCN). In the in vivo studies, the bone volume density in both MSC groups was significantly greater than that in the empty control or Bio-Oss only group. Moreover, the new bone formation and Collagen I / osteoprotegerin protein expressions of the scaffold+MSC groups were higher than those of the Bio-Oss only group. Finally, the Bio-Oss+BMSC and Bio-Oss+DPSC groups had a similar bone mineral density, new bone formation, and osteogenesis-related protein expression. Overall, the DPSCs seeded on Bio-Oss matched the bone regeneration efficacy of BMSCs in vivo and hence appear to be a promising strategy for craniofacial defect repair in future clinical applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells; dental pulp stem cells; bone marrow stem cells; bone regeneration; calvarial defect mesenchymal stem cells; dental pulp stem cells; bone marrow stem cells; bone regeneration; calvarial defect
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Lee, Y.-C.; Chan, Y.-H.; Hsieh, S.-C.; Lew, W.-Z.; Feng, S.-W. Comparing the Osteogenic Potentials and Bone Regeneration Capacities of Bone Marrow and Dental Pulp Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Rabbit Calvarial Bone Defect Model. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 5015.

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